PER â€“ 611
Essay Question 1
Physical education programs have evolved over time based on the needs of the students, curricula, societal standards for physical activity and research in physical education. There are eight key components that form a comprehensive program that is valued by parents, teachers and students. The first and foremost component of an excellent program is organized around the National Association for Sport and Physical Education Standards (NASPE). Those six standards are: demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities, demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles, and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities and participates regularly in physical activity are the first three NASPE standards. The next ideals are: achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of physical fitness, exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity and finally values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and/or social interaction.
As stated above, physical education programs have evolved and research in this field has expanded the knowledge of educators. Physical education programs have become more comprehensive and now focuses on the development of age-appropriate motor and cognitive skills. I will also dare the say that the presence of a good physical education program can also allow students to think differently about exercise, can also assist with socialization and in some cases build self-esteem. The next few components that comprise a quality program are: student-
centered learning, physical activity and motor skill development and activities that teach management and self-discipline skills and the inclusion of all students. Educators can incorporate these sections during the lesson planning stage by which activities they choose for the class. The final three essential keys are focusing on process of learning rather than the product or outcome of skill performance, teaching lifetime activities that promote health and personal wellness and teaching cooperation and responsibility and help develop sensitivity to diversity and gender issues. Physical educators can ask students questions and engage in conversation about the activities to ensure comprehension and understanding of these entities.
As a first-year physical education teacher in a small rural elementary school in Mississippi, I will ensure that my physical education program endorsed the curriculum practices of NASPE and align my lesson plans with the other seven components of a high quality physical education program. As an educator, I will address mechanisms that comprise the key essentials according to NASPE. My program will contain a set of standards defined by various competencies as well as remain measurable and comprehensive. To ensure a successful program takes careful preparation and consideration for all students with respect to age-appropriate motor and cognitive skills. While planning for student-centered activity and learning, I will match the students physical and emotional development with the activities chosen, ensure success for all students and work to develop a positive set of behaviors toward physical activity for each pupil.
To guarantee that the curriculum standards are met, I will focus on studentâ€™s skill development and quality physical activity as a part of key three and certify that students are learning self-discipline and evaluating the class behavior as part of essential four. Observation will be vital to ensuring that these components are met. Including all students of various skill levels with emphasis on instruction for those who need it the most, instruction designed to facilitate less skilled and less motivated students and guaranteeing that each student perceive themselves as successful is component five. This can be achieved through preparation, positive reinforcement and words or encouragement. Performing skills correctly instead of focusing on the outcome and learning the proper techniques comprise component six. This can be achieved during careful demonstration of each skill and inquiring to see what knowledge students have learned, retained and perhaps implemented at home.
Components seven and eight focus on the future active lifestyle, cooperation and responsibility. This is where the educational component meets the physical activity. In these last two entities, educators are tasked with preparing students for future activity as an adult, offering more than sport activities and incorporating walking as the most popular form or exercise. Providing an environment that is welcoming, engaging and conducive to learning is the final task that a physical education program must meet. Students learn that cooperation supersedes competition. They learn to respect other cultures and the differences in gender. Observation and student feedback can assist the educator in evaluating the success of these mechanisms.
Students, parents and administrators would feel confident that what I am doing as a teacher reflects quality because I would keep records and evaluations on my classes. I would educate the constituents and ensure them that learning will take place and that students will not just play dodge ball or walk around the track with no goals or achievements in site. I will actively make lesson plans that follow the eight essentials of a quality program. The key is sharing this information with the students, parents and administrators. Many may not know how much research and planning goes into a great physical education class.
This is a time is which the educator can open his or her gym for an â€œopen houseâ€ night and provide those who attend with information that supports the lesson plans and the research on the topic. This can provide the attendees with a better understand of what is to be taught, learned and mastered. During the â€œopen houseâ€ I would survey the attendees and ask what their physical education experience was like while attending school. I will ask if they learned anything and if so what was it. Gathering feedback from the parents, administrators and students about what the expectations are for the class can also assist in assuring the learning is taking place in each class. As a new physical education teacher, I would need proven research and detailed lesson plans to convince the constituents (parents, students and administrators) that my program is of high quality. I will have to explain what the benefits of the program are and what the students are expected to learn and master by the end of the school year.
PER â€“ 611
Essay Question 2
Teaching physical education has evolved over the past few decades. More exploration of new ideas and thinking out of the box to assist students has become a way of life for most educators. The students we teach are as different as the cars we drive and with that comes varied learning styles. Each student is unique is the way that her or she gathers, interprets, retains and utilizes information. As an educator it is our responsibility to disseminate information to pupils in more than one way. We are tasked with ensuring that each student understands the basics and eventually the complexities of physical education.
There are many different teaching styles for physical education from teacher feedback to divergent discovery. As a physical education teaching at a school in Greenville, GA. I would like to incorporate the directive teaching style. This teaching style is characterized by prominent teacher centered decision making and teacher directed engagement in patterns for learners. Educators play a firm role in the directive style. Teachers provide structure for learning. This would be achieved by following the lesson plan that I have prepared for the class. Proceeding in small steps is essential as to not overwhelm the students. Providing milestones for each task will assist with larger goals. For example: if I would like my students to run a half mile they have to start first by walking, then jogging a certain distance combined with walking and so on until the students can run twice around the track.
Giving details, asking questions and providing reaction would occur in the last part of the class in which we reflect on what activities were done, what was learned and why it was important. This will ensure student success because if an element is not understood the educator can provide accurate feedback. Physical education teachers divide large academic tasks into smaller tasks. Scaffolding the instruction so that students can build upon what they have learned in the previous class would allow the students to connect each lesson. Offering continued student practice or repetition each class period with the â€œreviewâ€ section of my lesson plan will allow the students to recall and demonstrate what they have previous learned.
Rosenshine (1983) identifies six key operation in a Direct Instruction lesson. Each Direct Instructional Lesson should begin with a brief review of the previous lesson which can be achieved with proper lesson planning and preparation. Presentation of new material or content is shown or modeled to students in tasks presentation by the teacher. In this instance, I would demonstrate the proper technique to an exercise and while I am demonstrating I will inform the students of the name of the exercise and what muscles it works. The class will then be asked to follow and perform the task with me which will lead directly into a practice segment.
The fourth key operation to directive style is the teachersâ€™ augmented feedback and corrective statements to students. This can always be achieved by asking the students questions to check their understanding. If a pupil does not understand or needs clarification the teacher can always provide proper feedback during the â€œreflectionâ€ stage of the lesson. Independent practice is essential to student learning. This would be achieved in the demonstration portion of the lesson. I would allow the students to show me what they have learned. For example, the students would demonstrate how to do a proper push up, lunge or jumping jack during the independent practice. Periodic review or assessment can be achieved by recalling information at the beginning or end of each class period.
The directive model also makes some clear assumptions about teaching. Assumption one is the teacher is the main source of instructional content and decisions in the classroom. This is typically true for most traditional classrooms. Secondly, the teacher determines the unit content and places that content into a series of learning tasks. The teacher usually prepares lessons plans in which he or she follows to construct what and how the students are taught during each lesson. The third element is that the educator is viewed as one who holds the content knowledge that must be transferred to students. In a standard teaching atmosphere this is deemed as normal; students learn from the educators. The last assumption is that teacher should use all his expertise to manage the learning environment. There are various classroom management styles that educators can utilize to ensure that the classroom is inviting, engaging and conducive to learning.
Not only does the directive teaching style has assumptions about teaching, but also five clear assumptions about learning. The first one is that learning takes place incrementally or in small pieces which is why one of the tasks for educators is to use small steps and to break down larger tasks into smaller more manageable tasks. Secondly, learners must have a clear understanding of what and how to learn a specific task. Educators must allow students to recall previous knowledge and to build upon what they have learned and include new information. Next, learning is a function of the consequences that immediately follow emitted behaviors.
The fourth assumption is learning is a function of the consequences that immediately follow emitted behaviors. Finally, the high rates of OTR must be coupled with equally high rates of augmented positive feedback and corrective feedback. One of the key elements in directive instruction is for educators to deliver augmented feedback and corrective statements to students for continued understanding and learning. In my opinion, I think the cognitive domain is the most feasible my students to be able to learn from this teaching style. The teaching and learning features of this teaching style seem to go hand in hand. For example, students needed feedback for learning and one of the essentials of the directive teaching style was that educators provided essential feedback to students to provide more understanding. I can see why this teaching style would be popular among physical education professionals. It provided both the teacher and students with an enriching environment for continued learning.