6 Questions 1 Paragraph Each no reference or format

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1 PARAGRAPH PER QUESTION 6 Questions 1 Paragraph Each no reference or formatting these question answers are entered into an ebook so plagiarism doesn’t even matter doesn’t have to be original nor waste your time on apa format or references neither dont need them

  • During the
    post-World War II period, as pharmaceutical companies began to provide
    medications to control or even cure previously untreatable disorders,
    psychiatry was left behind. It had few proven treatments and was viewed by many
    as an unwanted stepchild of medicine. In response to this crisis, psychiatry
    had to re-invent itself to appear as much of a science as the other specialties
    in medicine. Panels of experts spoke at length about the glories of the medical
    model of psychiatry and were touted as experts in their field when the media
    requested interviews (Whitaker, 2010). The American Psychiatric Association
    provided workshops for psychiatrists on how to conduct themselves in television
    interviews, and sought out positive media coverage (Whitaker, 2010). Physicians
    who did not fully endorse the “party line” were shunted aside, and the media
    were not referred to them for interviews (Whitaker, 201Basking in the reflected glory of
    the growing list of psycho-pharmaceuticals, psychiatrists were rarely asked why
    — if there were many effective treatments for mental illness — there were so
    many more people who were mentally ill than in earlier times and why their
    prognosis was so much worse than the prognoses for persons with the same
    disorders at the turn of the 20th century. In the early days of psychiatry,
    depression or schizophrenia did not have the same lifelong disabling prognosis
    that it does in the era of modern pharmacotherapy (Whitaker, 2010). The
    pharmaceutical revolution did not cause the state hospitals and asylums to open
    their doors and discharge thousands of patients back into the community;
    rather, it was the introduction of Medicaid and Medicare programs in 1965 that
    did so. These programs provided for the reimbursement for care of the
    chronically mentally ill in community nursing homes but not in state hospitals
    or asylums. Thus, the patients were discharged to community nursing homes,
    where their care was paid for though Medicare and Medicaid (Whitaker, 2010).The purpose of any professional
    medical organization, Whitaker (2010) noted, is to increase the profits of
    practitioners in that organization. This creates a situation in which: (A)
    pharmaceutical companies produce a wide range of compounds that affect the
    function of the brain; (B) the public (and to a large degree the medical
    community) has been educated to believe that these psycho-pharmaceuticals are
    effective; (C) the pharmaceutical industry claims that these medications are
    safe because they have conducted carefully choreographed research to prove
    this; (D) the Food and Drug Administration has adopted a stance in which it
    works more closely with pharmaceutical companies to promote their products than
    as a watchdog agency working to insure the public’s health; and, (E) these
    medications can be prescribed only by licensed health care professionals
    (usually physicians) who have been taught that this is the only way to treat
    mental illness and are instructed on the proper use of these medications by
    pharmaceutical-company-trained salespersons. It might be argued that the
    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders helped to define the
    various forms of mental illness, helping to legitimize psychiatry.References
    American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
    Mental Disorders (4th edition). Washington, D.C.: Author.

    1. Is there a conflict of interest
    in this process? Why or why not?

    ANSWER: (1 PARAGRAPh)

    2. Do you agree with the author’s perspective? What
    experience or evidence do you have to support your argument?

    ANSWER: (1 PARAGRAPH)
    The
    article states “most people with alcohol and other drug (AOD) use disorders
    suffer from co-occurring disorders (CODs), including mental health and medical
    problems, which complicate treatment and may contribute to poorer outcomes”.
    3. How are outpatient programs, clinicians, and residential settings equipped
    to handle this need and clinical area of concern?
    ANSWER: (1 PARAGRAPH)
    4. As a clinician, where does your
    responsibility lie in being aware of the non-mental health needs and how they
    can impact, interrupt, or sabotage treatment?

    ANSWER (1 PARAGRAPH)

    Dual diagnosis clients often
    demonstrate different forms of denial depending on the skills and training of
    the professional interviewing them. Contrast the following two hypothetical
    interviews. The client is a man who is assumed to be 25 years old and is
    recovering from the aftereffects of a closed head injury he suffered while
    intoxicated.
    Counselor: So, we are meeting here to discuss your substance use to try and
    determine whether you have a substance abuse problem.
    Client: Can you speak up a bit? The accident left me with a hearing
    problem.
    Counselor (speaking more loudly): In the year before your accident, how
    often would you say you would drink alcohol in the typical week?
    Client: I can’t remember much of the year before the accident. I was
    told by the doctors that I probably won’t be able to regain any of those
    memories back.
    Counselor: All right, how far back does your memory allow you to recall
    things clearly?
    Client: Two or three years back.
    Counselor: Then describe what your alcohol use pattern was like 2-3
    years ago.
    Client: Oh, it was not a problem back then. I hardly ever used alcohol.
    But I can’t remember clearly, because of my head injury. Sorry.
    Now contrast this with the following
    hypothetical interview between a physician and the same client the next day.
    Physician: Well, you seem to be recovering quite well. But your alcohol
    and drug abuse bothers me.
    Client: Oh. The counselor told me that I don’t have a problem. We
    discussed this yesterday and he said that I did not even seem to abuse alcohol.
    I never use drugs, so that is not a problem. But my shoulder still hurts me a
    lot.
    Physician: Does it hurt when you move your shoulder in a specific way,
    or does it hurt all the time?
    Client: All the time. Can you give me something for the pain?
    In this hypothetical set of
    conversations you can see how the client shifted the focus away from his
    substance use to his medical condition when meeting with the rehabilitation
    counselor, and then away from his substance use to a physical problem when meeting
    with the physician (with a ploy to obtain painkillers tossed in for good
    measure). Thus, clear and continuous communications between the professionals
    who are involved in the patient’s treatment is always necessary. For example:
    Counselor: So, we are meeting here to discuss your substance use, to try
    and determine whether you have a substance abuse problem.
    Client: Can you speak up a bit? The accident left me with a hearing
    problem.
    Counselor (speaking more loudly): Really? Dr. Smith did not mention that
    in his notes. I will have to mention it to Dr. Smith when we meet later this
    afternoon and Dr. Smith will want to discuss that problem with you. But let us
    move on. In the year before your accident, in a typical week how often would
    you consume alcohol?
    Client: I can’t remember much of the year before the accident. I was
    told by the doctors that I probably won’t be able to regain any of those
    memories back.
    Counselor: Hmmm. The neuropsychological test results did not suggest
    either short term or long term memory problems. It is strange you cannot
    remember that information now.
    Client: Can I see the report?
    Counselor: You can discuss the report and the conclusions with the
    neuropsychologist after we are finished. Right now we are discussing your
    alcohol use in the year prior to your accident…
    5. What
    changes do you notice between the third dialogue and the first pair of
    dialogues?

    ANSWER (1 PARAGRAPH)
    6. What
    practices caused those changes?

    ANSWER (1 PARAGRAPH)

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