The Emergence of Nationalism
The Middle Ages provided one lasting change to Europe, the emergence of nationalism among its people. Nationalism means a feeling of deep loyalty to one’s country rather than individual leaders. Between 1300 and 1500, France and England became nation-states, a new type of country due to the people and nobles pushing through new laws. A nation-state is a group of people who live in a defined territory and are united under one government. They generally speak the same language and have a feeling of belonging and sense of loyalty totheir country. The monarchs or kings and queens of Europe all had family names. For example, France was ruled by the Carolingians, the Capets, and the Bourbons. In Germany, the Hapsburgs, Hohenzollems, and the Hanovers ruled. England has been ruled by the House of Orange, the Yorks, the Tudors, the Stuarts, and the Windsors.
The Tudor Monarchy
Henry VII, or Henry Tudor, of the House of Lancaster was crowned king after the War of the Roses. Henry VII became the founder of the Tudor dynasty. Henry VII married a woman from the House of York to bring peace between the House of Lancaster and the House of York. Henry VII ruled until 1509.The next king of England is one of the most famous. A large man, King Henry VIII was married six times. The story of his marriages has been described in books, movies, and songs. Henry VIII was 18 when he became king of England. He married a Spanish princess named Catherine of Aragon. Catherine of Aragon was the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain and the marriage was an attempt to create peaceful ties between the two countries. Henry VIII was not happy with Catherine of Aragon because she gave birth to a daughter, Mary Tudor, instead of a son. Henry VIII needed a male heir to continue the Tudor dynasty after his death. The Tudor dynasty would end with Henry VIII without a male heir.
In 1529 Henry VIII wanted a divorce from Queen Catherine, but the pope denied this request as they were forbidden in the Catholic faith. Another reason was the request was denied was the Church was being criticized and attacked from the Reformation. An important reason for the pope’s refusal was political as Queen Catherine was the aunt of the German Emperor, Charles V., Charles V had control over the pope, so the pope was unable to exercise his power without Charles V permission. Henry VIII was angered by this and did not want to be told what he could or could not do by the pope. Henry VIII made a new law in 1534, called the Act of Supremacy which allowed the king could obtain a divorce. The pope was angry and excommunicated Henry VIII, forbidding the king to worship in the Catholic Church. Through the Act of Supremacy and his following excommunication, Henry VIII made himself head of the Church of England or Anglican Church.
After divorcing Catherine of Aragon, Henry VIII married Anne Boleyn. Henry VIII actually married Anne Boleyn one year before announcing the Act of Supremacy. Henry VIII was very unhappy when Anne Boleyn gave birth to a girl named Elizabeth, leaving him without a male heir. Henry VIII soon decided to divorce Anne Boleyn and had her arrested. Anne Boleyn was accused of being unfaithful to the English king, and was beheaded.
Ten days after the execution of Anne Boleyn Henry VIII would marry Jane Seymour. Jane Seymour would provide son, had named Edward. Sadly, Jane died soon after.
Henry VIII’s fourth marriage was to Anne of Cleves. This was a political marriage like the marriage to Catherine of Aragon. The purpose of this marriage was to ally England with the Protestants in Germany. Henry VIII became bored with Anne of Cleves, divorcing her after a few months. Henry VIII would also have the man who arranged this marriage killed.
Henry’s fifth marriage was to Catherine Howard. Soon after the wedding, he found out that Catherine Howard loved another man. Henry VIII had Catherine Howard killed by beheading for her unfaithfulness.
Henry’s sixth and last wife was Catherine Parr, who was lucky and outlived Henry VIII.
Henry VIII had three children. Edward VI ruled for only six years. Mary Tudor, Henry’s daughter by Catherine of Aragon, ruled for five years. Under the reign of Mary Tudor, England became an official Catholic country. Mary married King Philip II of Spain, a Catholic. Mary Tudor is known as Bloody Mary because during her reign many Protestants were put to death for not converting to Catholicism.
After Mary Tudor’s reign her half-sister Elizabeth became Queen. Queen Elizabeth I was one of the greatest rulers in history, ruling from 1588 to 1603. England returning to being a Protestant country under her rule. England also defeated the Spanish navy of King Philip II, who had been the husband of Bloody Mary. Under the rule of Elizabeth I, England became one of the most powerful nations in the world. With Elizabeth’s death, the Tudor Monarchy ended because there was no heir to inherit the throne. The Tudor Monarchy included the reigns of Henry VII, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary Tudor, and Elizabeth I.
After the Muslim conquest of Spain, Spain had a tradition of religious tolerance, or respect for the opinions and practices of others. Christians, Jews, and Muslims lived in relative peace. Christian warriors of Europe, spurred on by the Pope, attempted to expel or force out Muslims from Spain. This was known as the Reconquista, or reconquest, and was part of an effort by the Roman Catholic Church to recover Christian lands from Muslims. In 1469 Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon, two of the most powerful Christian kingdoms in Spain, and opened the way for Spain to become a unified state. The two monarchs conquered the last Muslim kingdom of Granada in 1492, and the Reconquista was complete. This crusading spirit linked religion with Spanish nationalism and became disastrous for Spaniards who were not Christian.
The Spanish Inquisition
In order to make Spain a Catholic country, the king and queen asked the pope’s permission in 1478 to set up a Church court of Inquisition. The purpose was to get confessions from people opposed to the Roman Catholic Church and punish heretics, people who opposed the Church’s teachings. A crusade against Jews and Muslims began. The Inquisition took place in many parts of Europe but mainly in France, Germany, and Spain. It was an organization of the Church whose job it was to find and judge heretics.
Queen Isabella was determined to bring religious and political unity to Spain. Queen Isabella first ended the policy of religious tolerance from Muslim rule. Queen Isabella then was given permission from the pope to create the Inquisition to try people accused of heresy against the Church. The primary suspects were Jews and Muslims who had converted to Christianity. Inquisition agents suspected that converted Jews and Muslims were all guilty and the Church courts demanded they confess. The Inquisition would torture people to get confessions of guilt. If suspects refused, they were again tortured. If the suspects confessed their guilt, true or not, they were burned at the stake. Between 1478 and 1490, over 2,000 men and women were executed by the Inquisition. In 1492, the same year as the conquest of Granada, Isabella and Ferdinand also began the persecution of 200,000 Spanish Jews who openly practiced their religion and refused conversion. The majority of Jewish people, about 130,000, chose exile. Entire families and communities departed in ships and caravans to find other lands. In August of 1492, Christopher Columbus witnessed and recorded the event in his diary. Columbus was about to leave on the voyage he hoped would lead to Asia but took him to the Americas. Some exiled Jews sailed with him, such as the ship’s doctor and interpreter.
Later, a few Jews became early settlers in the Americas. Most of the exiled Jews went to Muslim countries of Southwest Asia, lands that are now Iran, Syria, Israel, and Jordan. In 1496 the remaining Jews were forced to leave Portugal. In 1502 Isabella ordered all Muslims who had not converted to Christianity to leave her kingdom. Isabella had achieved unity by expelling the Jews and Muslims but also ruined two skilled, educated groups of people who had contributed to Spain’s and Portugal’s economy and culture.
Lesson 16 Review
Directions: For each question, present the answer in complete sentences with supporting information from the Lesson. Do not copy and paste from the Lessons or Internet resources, but answer in your own words to demonstrate understanding of the material.
1. Who was the first Tudor king? How many times was King Henry VIII married? Why did Henry VIII want a divorce from Catherine of Aragon? What was the Act of Supremacy? Which two women did King Henry VIII marry for political reasons? Which two wives of Henry VIII were killed?
2. What were the names of Henry VIII’s three children?
3. Why was Mary Tudor called Bloody Mary? Why was Elizabeth I one of the greatest English rulers in history?
4. Whose marriage united Spain? What was the Reconquista? What was the purpose of the Church court of Inquisition? How did the Church court of Inquisition get people to confess? What was the purpose of the Spanish Inquisition?
5. What were the Jews in Spain required to do in 1492? Why did the expulsion of the Jews and the Muslims hurt the economy of Spain and Portugal