How do you think risk should be measured?

1000 word count total in APA format with in text citations and 2 references. One can be the textbook

Kapoor, J. R., Dlabay, L. R., Hughes, R. J., & Hart, M. M. (2015). Personal finance (11th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

1. How do you think risk should be measured? Explain why you think it is best.

2. Explain what is meant by “risk drives expected return”.

3. For Asset A and for Asset B, compute the average annual return, variance, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation for the annual returns given below.

a. Asset A: 5%, 10%, 15%, 4%

b. Asset B: -6%, 20%, 2%, -5%, 10%

4. Compute the holding period returns for each security below:

 Security Price Today Price One Year Ago Dividends Received Interest Received RR \$20.05 \$18.67 \$0.50 WC \$33.42 \$45.79 \$1.10 AC \$1,015.38 \$991.78 \$100.00

5. Find the real return, nominal after-tax return, and real after-tax return for each of the following stocks:

 Stock Nominal Return Inflation Tax Rate X 13.5% 5% 15% Y 8.7% 4.7% 25% Z 5.2% 2.5% 28%

6. In what ways does a proprietorship differ from a partnership? In what ways does a proprietorship differ from a corporation?

7. What information might a changing stock price give to managers?

8. What are agency costs? Give some examples. How might they be measured?