Which region of the brain appears to have the oldest evolutionary history?

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1.___________ The successful functioning of children who have experienced the surgical
removal of an entire cerebral hemisphere best illustrates the value of:

A. aphasia.
B. reward deficiency syndrome.
C. plasticity.
D. neural networks.

2.___________ Who would have been most likely to claim that a slight protrusion in a certain
region of someone’s skull indicated that the individual had an optimistic personality?

A. Charles Sherrington
B. Aristotle
C. John Locke
D. Franz Gall

3.__________ Botox injections smooth facial wrinkles because botulin is a(n):

A. Ach antagonist.
B. dopamine antagonist.
C. Ach agonist.
D. dopamine agonist.

4.__________ In stressful situations, the sympathetic nervous system _______ blood sugar
levels and ________ the pupils of the eyes.

A. lowers; dilates
B. raises; contracts
C. lowers; contracts
D. raises; dilates

5.__________ The endocrine system consists of:

A. dendrites.
B. neural networks.
C. interneurons.
D. glands.

6._________ Which of the following chemical messengers is both a neurotransmitter and a
hormone?

A. serotonin
B. acetylcholine
C. norepinephrine
D. dopamine

7._________ Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will thereby increase the concentration
of serotonin molecules in the:

A. axon terminals.
B. synaptic gaps.
C. stem cells.
D. endocrine glands.

8.__________ Natural opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control are called:

A. Ach agonists.
B. dendrites.
C. morphene antagonists
D. endorphins.

9.__________ The regions of the parietal lobes that are involved in mathematical and spatial
reasoning are known as:

A. the angular gyrus.
B. Wernicke’s areas.
C. the reticular formation.
D. association areas.

10.________ Due to the automobile accident, Jenny suffered damage to her cerebral cortex in
Broca’s area. Jenny is most likely to experience:

A. auditory hallucinations.
B. memory loss.
C. aphasia.
D. paralysis of her left limbs.

11.________ Which of the following would be most useful for detecting the brain areas that are
most active as a person performs mathematical calculations?

A. a brain lesion
B. an interneuron
C. a PET scan
D. a hemispherectomy

12.________ Which portion of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in making plans and
formulating moral judgments?

A. occipital lobes
B. frontal lobes
C. temporal lobes
D. parietal lobes

13.________ The limbic system structure that regulates hunger is the:

A. thalamus.
B. amygdala.
C. hippocampus.
D. hypothalamus.

14.________ Which region of the brain appears to have the oldest evolutionary history?

A. frontal lobes
B. limbic system
C. brainstem
D corpus callosum

15.________ After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth
and coordinated manner. It is most probably that she has suffered damage to her:

A. amygdala.
B. angular gyrus.
C. cerebellum.
D. corpus callosum.

16.________ In order to focus on inner sensations, images, and feelings, Wilehlm Wundt used a
research tool known as:

A. psychoanalysis.
B. introspection.
C. behavior genetics.
D. spaced practice.

17.________ Dr. Stevens provides psychotherapy to people who suffer from excessive anxiety.
Dr. Stevens is most likely a _____________ psychologist.

A. social
B. developmental
C. clinical
D. cognitive

18._________ Compared with Wilhelm Wundt, early behaviorists were much less likely to focus
on the study of:

A. smiling.
B. screaming.
C. fighting.
D. thinking.

19._________ The SQ3R method encourages students to:

A. read each text Module quickly in order to minimize boredom.
B. read each text Module without any preconceptions about what they might learn.
C. survey a text Module’s organization before actually reading the Module itself.
D. read entire text Modules at one sitting in order to maximize comprehension.

20._________ Debates as to whether alcohol abuse is biologically determined or culturally
influenced are most relevant to the issue of:

A. nature versus nurture.
B. naturalistic observation versus introspection.
C. behavior versus mental processes.
D. conscious versus unconscious mind.

21._________ Which perspective would be most relevant to understanding the role of spaced
practice on long-term memory of information?

A. psychodynamic
B. social-cultural
C. cognitive
D. behavior genetics

22._________ An integrated understanding of the explanations provided by the neuroscience,
cognitive, social-cultural, and other perspectives in psychology is most clearly provided by:

A. SQ3R.
B. behaviorism.
C. a psychodynamic perspective.
D. a biopsychosocial approach.

23._________ Understanding why the fear of darkness may have contributed to the survival of
our human ancestors is most relevant to the ___________ perspective.

A. behavioral
B. cognitive
C. evolutionary
D. psychodynamic

24._________ Professor Carter observes and records the behavior of grocery shoppers as they
select items to purchase. Which type of research is Professor Carter employing?

A. survey research
B. case study
C. experimentation
D. naturalistic observation

25._________ Mr. Brown has gathered evidence that the self-esteem of students is negatively
correlated with their typical levels of anxiety. Before he uses this evidence to conclude that self-
esteem reduces anxiety, Mr. Brown should first be reminded that:

A. events often seem more probably in hindsight.
B. random sequences of events often don’t look random.
C. we often exaggerate the extent to which others share our opinions.
D. correlation does not prove causation.

26.__________ In order to assess whether sense of humor is affected by sexual stimulation,
researchers exposed married couples to either sexually stimulating or to sexually nonstimulating
movie scenes prior to watching a comedy skit. In this research, the independent variable
consisted of:

A. reactions to the comedy skit.
B. level of sexual stimulation.
C. marital status.
D. sense of humor.

27.__________ Stacey suggests that because children are more impulsive than adults, they will
have more difficulty controlling their anger. Stacey’s prediction regarding anger management
exemplifies:

A. a hypothesis.
B. the hindsight bias.
C. illusory correlation.
D. the placebo effect.

28.___________ In an experimental study of the extent to which mental alertness is inhibited by
sleep deprivation, alertness would be the:

A. control condition.
B. independent variable.
C. experimental condition.
D. dependent variable.

29.___________ When Leanne heard about experimental evidence that orange juice
consumption triggers hyperactivity in children, she questioned whether the tested children had
been randomly assigned to experimental conditions. Leanne’s reaction best illustrates:

A. illusory correlation.
B. the hindsight bias.
C. critical thinking.
D. overconfidence.

30. ___________ In drug treatment studies, double-blind procedures minimize outcome
differences between experimental and control conditions that could be attributed to:

A. replication.
B. operational definitions.
C. random sampling.
D. placebo effects.

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