Please answer questions below in detail sentance and paragraphs.
- According to Kleinman, informed consent is intended to promote two basic ethical values. Carefully explain these values and how informed consent promotes them. What value (or principle) is often considered to be in conflict with these, and how is this so?
- Carefully explain the ethically relevant features and values illustrated in and the moral conclusions Kleinman draws from the case of Elizabeth Bouvia.
- Briefly analyze the thorny issue of patient decision-making capacity (sometimes referred to as “competence”). What kinds of standards does Kleinman think appropriate for different kinds of cases?
- Briefly explain the trio of conditions that the Ontario Electro-convulsive Therapy Committee offered as being individually sufficient to conclude a patient is incompetent. What problems arise around the third condition? What is Kleinman’s analysis about the mitral valve patient’s competence in light of different ways of understanding the concept?
- Kleinman endorses the ‘emergency protocol’ offered by Pellegrino and Thomasma and also offers his own nuanced guideline for medical professionals. Carefully explain both of these pieces of action guidance.