TP.4 Design for Instruction Teacher Work Sample Teaching Process Four Design for Instruction TWS Standard The teacher designs instruction for specific learning goals, student characteristics and nee

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TP.4 Design for Instruction

Teacher Work Sample

Teaching Process Four

Design for Instruction

TWS Standard

The teacher designs instruction for specific learning goals, student characteristics and needs, and learning contexts.

Task

Describe how you will design your unit instruction related to unit goals, students’ characteristics and needs, and the specific learning context.

Directions

  • Results of pre-assessment.  After administrating the pre-assessment, analyze student performance relative to the learning goals.  Depict the results of the pore-assessment in a format that allows you to find patterns of student performance.
  • Unit overview.  Provide an overview of your unit.  Use a visual organizer such as a block plan or outline to make your unit plan clear.  Include the topic or activity you are planning for each day/period.  Also indicate the goal or goals (coded from your Learning Goals section) that you are addressing in each activity.  Make sure that every goal is addressed by at least one activity and that every activity relates to at least one goal.
  • Activities.  Describe at least three unit activities that reflect a variety of instructional strategies/techniques and explain why you are planning those specific activities.  In your explanation for each activity, include:

(1)  how the content relates to your instructional goal(s),

(2)  how the activity stems from your pre-assessment information and

contextual factors,

(3)  what materials/technology you will need to implement the activity, and

(4)  how you plan to assess student learning during and/or following the activity

(i.e., formative assessment).

  • Technology.  Describe how you will use technology in your planning and/or instruction.  If you do not plan to use any form of technology, provide your clear rationale for its omission.

Suggested Page Length:  3 + visual organizer

TP.4 Design for Instruction Teacher Work Sample Teaching Process Four Design for Instruction TWS Standard The teacher designs instruction for specific learning goals, student characteristics and nee
Mississippi Valley State University Teacher Work Sample (TWS) The Teacher Work Sample contains seven teaching processes identified by research and best practice as fundamental to improving student learning. Each Teaching Process is followed by a TWS Standard, the Task, directions, and a Rubric that defines various levels of performance on the standard. The Standards and Rubrics will be used to evaluate your TWS. The directions help you document the extent to which you have met the standard. You are required to teach a comprehensive unit. Before you teach the unit, you will describe contextual factors, identify learning goals based on your state or district content standards, create an assessment plan designed to measure student performance before (pre-assessment), and plan for your instruction. After you teach the unit, you will analyze student learning and then reflect and evaluate your teaching as related to student learning. TWS Format 1. Complete a cover page that includes: (a) your name, (b) date submitted, (c) grade level taught, (d) your university, (e) course number and title. 2. Provide a Table of Contents that lists the sections and attachments in your TWS document with page numbers. Be sure to number each page of the entire document. 3. Charts, graphs, and assessment instruments are required as part of the TWS document. You may also want to provide other attachments, such as student work. However you should be very selective and make sure your attachments provide clear, concise evidence of your performance related to TWS standards and your students’ learning progress. 4. A suggested page length for your narrative is given at the end of each component section. You have some flexibility of length across components, but the total length of your written narrative (excluding charts, graphs, attachments and references) should not exceed twenty (20) word-processed pages, double-spaced in 12 point font, with 1 inch margins. 5. If you referred to another person’s ideas or material in your narrative, you should cite these in a separate section at the end of your narrative under References and Credits (not included in total page length). You may use any standard form for references; however, the American Psychological Association (APA) style is a recommended format. 6. In order to insure the anonymity of students in your class, do not include any student names or identification in any part of your TWS. Teaching Processes, TWS Standards, & Indicators TP 1. Contextual Factors TWS Standard: The teacher uses information about the learning –teaching context and student individual differences to set learning goals and plan instruction and assessment. Indicators: Knowledge of community, school, and classroom factors Knowledge of characteristics Knowledge of students’ varied approaches to learning Knowledge of students’ skills and prior learning Implications for instructional planning and assessment TP 2. Learning Goals TWS Standard: The teacher sets significant, challenging, varied and appropriate learning goals. Indicators: Significance, Challenge and Variety Clarity Appropriateness for students Alignment with national, state or local standards TP 3. Assessment Plan TWS Standard: The teacher uses multiple assessment modes and approaches aligned with learning goals to assess student learning before, during and after instruction. Indicators: Alignment with learning goals and instruction Clarity of criteria for performance Multiple modes and approaches Technical soundness Adaptations based on the individual needs of students TP 4. Design for Instruction TWS Standard: The teacher designs instruction for specific learning goals, student characteristics and needs, and learning contexts. Indicators: Alignment with learning goals Accurate representation of content Lesson and unit structure Use of a variety of instruction, activities, assignments and resources Use of contextual information and data to select appropriate and relevant activities, assignments and resources Use of technology TP 5. Instructional Decision-Making TWS Standard: The teacher uses ongoing analysis of student learning to make instructional decisions. Indicators: Sound professional practice Adjustments based on analysis of student learning Congruence between modifications and learning goals TP 6. Analysis of Student Learning TWS Standard: The teacher uses assessment data to profile student learning and communicate information about student progress and achievement. Indicators: Clarity and accuracy of presentation Alignment with learning goals Interpretation of data Evidence of impact on student learning TP 7. Reflection and Self-Evaluation TWS Standard: The teacher reflects on his or her instruction and student learning in order to improve teaching practice. Indicators: Interpretation of student learning Insights on effective instruction and assessment Alignment among goals, instruction and assessment Implications for future teaching Implications for professional development Design for Instruction Rubric TWS Standard The teacher designs instruction for specific learning goals, students characteristics and needs, and learning contexts. Rating Indicator 1 Indicator Not Met 2 Indicator Partially Met 3 Indicator Met Score Alignment with Learning Goals Few lessons are explicitly linked to learning goals. Few learning activities, assignments and resources are aligned with learning goals. Not all learning goals are covered in the design. Most lessons are explicitly linked to learning goals. Most learning activities, assignments and resources are aligned with learning goals. Most learning goals are covered in the design. All lessons are explicitly linked to learning goals. All learning activities, assignments and resources are aligned with learning goals. All learning goals are covered in the design. Accurate Representation of Content Teacher’s use of content appears to contain numerous inaccuracies. Content seems to be viewed more as isolated skills and facts rather than as part of a larger conceptual structure. Teacher’s use of content appears to be mostly accurate. Shows some awareness of the big ideas or structure of the discipline. Teacher’s use of content appears to be accurate. Focus of the content is congruent with the big ideas or structure of the discipline. Lesson and Unit Structure The lessons with9n the unit are not logically organized organization (e.g., sequenced). The lessons within the unit have some logical organization and appear to be somewhat useful in moving students toward achieving the learning goals. All lessons within the unit are logically organized and appear to be useful in moving students toward achieving the learning goals. Use of a Variety of Instruction, Activities, Assignments and Resources Little variety of instruction, activities, assignments, and resources. Heavy reliance on textbook or single resource (e.g., work sheets). Some variety in instruction, activities, assignments, or resources but with limited contribution to learning. Significant variety across instruction, activities, assignments, and/or resources. This variety makes a clear contribution to learning. Use of Contextual Information and Data to Select Appropriate and Relevant Activities, Assignments and Resources Instruction has not been designed with reference to contextual factors and pre-assessment data. Activities and assignments do not appear productive and appropriate for each student. Some instruction has been designed with reference to contextual factors and pre-assessment data. Some activities and assignments appear productive and appropriate for each student. Most instruction has been designed with reference to contextual factors and pre-assessment data. Most activities and assignments appear productive and appropriate for each student. Use of Technology Technology is inappropriately used OR teacher does not use technology, and no (or inappropriate) rationale is provided. Teacher uses technology but it does not make a significant contribution to teaching and learning OR teacher provides limited rationale for not using technology. Teacher integrates appropriate technology that makes a significant contribution to teaching and learning OR provides a strong rationale for not using technology.
TP.4 Design for Instruction Teacher Work Sample Teaching Process Four Design for Instruction TWS Standard The teacher designs instruction for specific learning goals, student characteristics and nee
Mississippi Valley State University Teacher Work Sample (TWS) The Teacher Work Sample contains seven teaching processes identified by research and best practice as fundamental to improving student learning. Each Teaching Process is followed by a TWS Standard, the Task, directions, and a Rubric that defines various levels of performance on the standard. The Standards and Rubrics will be used to evaluate your TWS. The directions help you document the extent to which you have met the standard. You are required to teach a comprehensive unit. Before you teach the unit, you will describe contextual factors, identify learning goals based on your state or district content standards, create an assessment plan designed to measure student performance before (pre-assessment), and plan for your instruction. After you teach the unit, you will analyze student learning and then reflect and evaluate your teaching as related to student learning. TWS Format 1. Complete a cover page that includes: (a) your name, (b) date submitted, (c) grade level taught, (d) your university, (e) course number and title. 2. Provide a Table of Contents that lists the sections and attachments in your TWS document with page numbers. Be sure to number each page of the entire document. 3. Charts, graphs, and assessment instruments are required as part of the TWS document. You may also want to provide other attachments, such as student work. However you should be very selective and make sure your attachments provide clear, concise evidence of your performance related to TWS standards and your students’ learning progress. 4. A suggested page length for your narrative is given at the end of each component section. You have some flexibility of length across components, but the total length of your written narrative (excluding charts, graphs, attachments and references) should not exceed twenty (20) word-processed pages, double-spaced in 12 point font, with 1 inch margins. 5. If you referred to another person’s ideas or material in your narrative, you should cite these in a separate section at the end of your narrative under References and Credits (not included in total page length). You may use any standard form for references; however, the American Psychological Association (APA) style is a recommended format. 6. In order to insure the anonymity of students in your class, do not include any student names or identification in any part of your TWS. Teaching Processes, TWS Standards, & Indicators TP 1. Contextual Factors TWS Standard: The teacher uses information about the learning –teaching context and student individual differences to set learning goals and plan instruction and assessment. Indicators: Knowledge of community, school, and classroom factors Knowledge of characteristics Knowledge of students’ varied approaches to learning Knowledge of students’ skills and prior learning Implications for instructional planning and assessment TP 2. Learning Goals TWS Standard: The teacher sets significant, challenging, varied and appropriate learning goals. Indicators: Significance, Challenge and Variety Clarity Appropriateness for students Alignment with national, state or local standards TP 3. Assessment Plan TWS Standard: The teacher uses multiple assessment modes and approaches aligned with learning goals to assess student learning before, during and after instruction. Indicators: Alignment with learning goals and instruction Clarity of criteria for performance Multiple modes and approaches Technical soundness Adaptations based on the individual needs of students TP 4. Design for Instruction TWS Standard: The teacher designs instruction for specific learning goals, student characteristics and needs, and learning contexts. Indicators: Alignment with learning goals Accurate representation of content Lesson and unit structure Use of a variety of instruction, activities, assignments and resources Use of contextual information and data to select appropriate and relevant activities, assignments and resources Use of technology TP 5. Instructional Decision-Making TWS Standard: The teacher uses ongoing analysis of student learning to make instructional decisions. Indicators: Sound professional practice Adjustments based on analysis of student learning Congruence between modifications and learning goals TP 6. Analysis of Student Learning TWS Standard: The teacher uses assessment data to profile student learning and communicate information about student progress and achievement. Indicators: Clarity and accuracy of presentation Alignment with learning goals Interpretation of data Evidence of impact on student learning TP 7. Reflection and Self-Evaluation TWS Standard: The teacher reflects on his or her instruction and student learning in order to improve teaching practice. Indicators: Interpretation of student learning Insights on effective instruction and assessment Alignment among goals, instruction and assessment Implications for future teaching Implications for professional development Mississippi Valley State University Teacher Work Sample Teaching Process One Contextual Factors TWS Standard The teacher uses information about the learning-teaching context and student individual differences to set learning goals and plan instruction and assessment. Task Discuss relevant factors and how they may affect the teaching-learning process. Include any supports and challenges that affect instruction and student learning. Directions In your discussion, include: Community, district and school factors. Address geographical location, community and school population, socio-economic profile and race/ethnicity. You might also address such things as stability of community, political climate, community support for education, and other environmental factors. Classroom factors. Address physical features, availability of technology equipment and resources and the extent of parental involvement. You might also discuss other relevant factors such as classroom rules and routines, grouping patterns, scheduling and classroom management. Student characteristics. Address student characteristics you must consider as you design instruction and assess learning. Include factors such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, special needs, achievement/development levels, culture, language, interests, learning styles/modalities or students’ skill levels. In your narrative, make sure you address students’ skills and prior learning that may influence the development of your learning goals, instruction and assessment. Instructional implications. Address how contextual characteristics of the community, classroom and students have implications for instructional planning assessment. Include specific instructional implications for at least two characteristics and any other factors that will influence how you plan and implement your unit. Suggested page Length: 1-2 Contextual Factors Rubric TWS Standard The teacher uses information about the learning/teaching context and student individual differences to set learning goals, plan instruction and assess learning. Rating Indicator 1 Indicator Not Met 2 Indicator Partially Met 3 Indicator Met Score Knowledge of Community, School and Classroom Factors Teacher displays Minimal, irrelevant, or biased knowledge of the Characteristics of the community, school, and classroom. Teacher displays some Knowledge of the characteristics of the community, school, and classroom that may affect learning. Teacher displays A comprehensive Understanding of the community, school, and classroom that may affect learning. Knowledge of Characteristics Of Students Teacher displays Minimal, stereotypical, or irrelevant knowledge of student differences (e.g. development, interests, culture, abilities/disabilities). Teacher displays general knowledge of student differences (e.g., development, interests, culture, abilities/disabilities) that may affect learning. Teacher displays general & specific understanding of student differences (e.g., development, interests, culture, abilities/disabilities) that may affect learning. Knowledge of Students’ Varied Approaches to Learning Teacher displays minimal, stereotypical, or irrelevant knowledge about the different ways students learn (e.g., learning styles, learning modalities). Teacher displays general knowledge about the different ways students learn (e.g., learning styles, learning modalities). Teacher displays general & specific understanding of student different ways students learn (e.g., learning styles, learning modalities) that may affect learning. Knowledge Of Students’ Skills and Prior Learning Teacher displays little or irrelevant knowledge of students’ skills and prior learning. Teacher displays general knowledge of students’ skills and prior learning that may affect learning. Teacher displays general & specific understanding of students’ skills and prior learning that may affect learning. Implications For Instructional Planning and Assessment Teacher does not provide implications for instruction and assessment based on student individual differences and community, school, and classroom characteristics OR provides inappropriate implications. Teacher provides general implications for instruction and assessment based on student individual differences and community, school, and classroom characteristics. Teacher provides specific implications for instruction and assessment based on student individual differences and community, school, and classroom characteristics. Mississippi Valley State University Teacher Work Sample Teaching Process Two Learning Goals TWS Standard The teacher sets significant, challenging, varied and appropriate learning goals. Task Select Learning Goals/Objs. Provide and justify the learning goals/obj. for the unit. Directions List the learning goals (not the activities) that will guide the planning, delivery and assessment of your unit. These goals should define what your expect students to know and be able to do at the end of the unit. The goals should be significant (reflect the big ideas or structure of the discipline) challenging, varied and appropriate. Number or code each learning goal so you can reference it later. Show how the goals are aligned with local, state, or national standards. (Identify the source of the standards). Describe the types and levels of your learning goals. Discuss why your learning goals/objectives are appropriate in terms of development; pre-requisite knowledge, skills; and other student needs. Suggested Page Length: 1-2 Learning Goals Rubric TWS Standard The teacher sets significant, challenging, varied and appropriate learning goals. Rating Indicator 1 Indicator Not Met 2 Indicator Partially Met 3 Indicator Met Score Significance, Challenge and Variety Goals reflect only one type or level of learning. Goals reflect several types or levels of learning but lack significance or challenge. Goals reflect several types or levels of learning and are significant and challenging. Clarity Goals are not stated clearly and are activities rather than learning outcomes. Some of the goals are clearly stated as learning outcomes. Most of the goals are clearly stated as learning outcomes. Appropriateness For Students Goals are not appropriate for the developmental level; pre-requisite knowledge, skills, experiences; or other student needs. Some goals are appropriate for the developmental level; pre-requisite knowledge, skills, experiences; and other student needs. Most goals are appropriate for the developmental level; pre-requisite knowledge, skills, experiences; and other student needs. Alignment with National, State, Or Local Standards Goals are not aligned with national, state or local standards. Some goals are aligned with national, state or local standards. Most of the goals are explicitly aligned with national, state or local standards. Mississippi Valley State University Teacher Work Sample Teaching Process Three Instructional Decision-Making TWS Standard. The teacher uses multiple assessment modes and approaches aligned with learning goals to assess student learning before, during and after instruction. Task Provide two examples of instructional decision-making based on students’ learning or responses. Directions Provide an overview of the assessment plan. For each learning goal include: assessments used to judge student performance, format of each assessment, and adaptations of the assessments for the individual needs of students based on pre-assessment and contextual factors. The purpose of this overview is to depict the alignment between learning goals and assessments and to show adaptations to meet the individual needs of students or contextual factors. You may use a visual organizer such as a table, outline or other means to make your plan clear. Describe the pre- and post-assessments that are aligned with your learning goals. Clearly explain how you will evaluate or score pre- and post-assessments, including criteria you will use to determine if the students’ performance meets the learning goals. Include copies of assessments, prompts, and/or student directions and criteria for judging student performance (e.g., scoring rubrics, observation checklist, rating scales, item weights, test blueprint, answer key). Discuss you plan for formative assessment that will help you determine student progress during the unit. Describe the assessments you plan to use to check on student progress and comment on the importance of collecting that particular evidence. Although formative assessment may change as you are teaching the unit, your task here is to predict at what points in your teaching it will be important to assess students’ progress toward learning goals. Suggested Page Length: 2+ pre- and post-assessment instruments, scoring rubrics/keys, and assessment plan table Example of Assessment Plan Table: Kindergarten Learning Goals Assessments Format of Assessment Adaptations Learning Goal 1 Example: The students will link wild animals with Their habitats. Pre-Assessment Formative Assessment Post- Assessment Checklist: game with Animal masks & centers Representing habitats (tree, lake, burrow, cave) Animal puppets and habitats (e.g., bird and nest) anecdotal records RE Q & A picture journals Checklist: game with Animal masks & centers Representing habitats *Repeat and modify instructions, as needed. Demonstrate and assist with cutting, gluing, etc. Provide model of mask and model how to move to habitat centers. Keep all activities high-interest and brief. *Provide concrete models and assistance with fine motor tasks, as needed. Provide multiple explanations and model performances. Process writing (i.e., dictations) when needed. Provide verbal cues and plenty of wait time for Q & A. Assessment Plan Rubric TWS Standard The teacher uses multiple assessment modes and approaches aligned with learning goals to assess student learning before, during and after instruction. Rating Indicator 1 Indicator Not Met 2 Indicator Partially Met 3 Indicator Met Score Alignment with Learning Goals and Instruction Content and methods of assessment lack congruence with learning goals or lack cognitive complexity. Some of the learning goals are assessed through the assessment plan, but many are not congruent with learning goals in content and cognitive complexity. Each of the learning goals is assessed through the assessment plan; assessments are congruent with the learning goals in content and cognitive complexity. Clarity of Criteria and Standards for Performance The assessments contain no clear criteria for measuring student performance relative to the learning goals. Assessment criteria have been developed, but they are not clear or are not explicitly linked to the learning goals. Assessment criteria are clear and are explicitly linked to the learning goals. Multiple Modes and Approaches The assessment plan includes only one assessment mode and does not assess students before, during, and after instruction. The assessment plan includes multiple modes but all are either pencil/paper based (i.e. they are not performance assessments) and/or do not require the integration of knowledge, skills and reasoning ability. The assessment plan includes multiple assessment modes ( including performance assessments, lab reports, research projects, etc.) and assesses student performance throughout the instructional sequence. Technical Soundness Assessments are not valid; scoring procedures are absent or inaccurate; items or prompts are poorly written; directions and procedures are confusing to students. Assessments appear to have some validity. Some scoring procedures are explained; some items or prompts are clearly written; some directions and procedures are clear to students. Assessments appear to be valid; scoring procedures are explained; most items or prompts are clearly written; directions and procedures are clear to students. Adaptations Based on the Individual Needs of Students Teacher does not adapt assessments to meet the individual needs of students or these assessments are inappropriate. Teacher makes adaptations to assessments that are appropriate to meet the individual needs of some students. Teacher makes adaptations to assessments that are appropriate to meet the individual needs of most students. Mississippi Valley State University Teacher Work Sample Teaching Process Four Design for Instruction TWS Standard The teacher designs instruction for specific learning goals, student characteristics and needs, and learning contexts. Task Describe how you will design your unit instruction related to unit goals, students’ characteristics and needs, and the specific learning context. Directions Results of pre-assessment. After administrating the pre-assessment, analyze student performance relative to the learning goals. Depict the results of the pore-assessment in a format that allows you to find patterns of student performance. Unit overview. Provide an overview of your unit. Use a visual organizer such as a block plan or outline to make your unit plan clear. Include the topic or activity you are planning for each day/period. Also indicate the goal or goals (coded from your Learning Goals section) that you are addressing in each activity. Make sure that every goal is addressed by at least one activity and that every activity relates to at least one goal. Activities. Describe at least three unit activities that reflect a variety of instructional strategies/techniques and explain why you are planning those specific activities. In your explanation for each activity, include: (1) how the content relates to your instructional goal(s), (2) how the activity stems from your pre-assessment information and contextual factors, (3) what materials/technology you will need to implement the activity, and (4) how you plan to assess student learning during and/or following the activity (i.e., formative assessment). Technology. Describe how you will use technology in your planning and/or instruction. If you do not plan to use any form of technology, provide your clear rationale for its omission. Suggested Page Length: 3 + visual organizer Design for Instruction Rubric TWS Standard The teacher designs instruction for specific learning goals, students characteristics and needs, and learning contexts. Rating Indicator 1 Indicator Not Met 2 Indicator Partially Met 3 Indicator Met Score Alignment with Learning Goals Few lessons are explicitly linked to learning goals. Few learning activities, assignments and resources are aligned with learning goals. Not all learning goals are covered in the design. Most lessons are explicitly linked to learning goals. Most learning activities, assignments and resources are aligned with learning goals. Most learning goals are covered in the design. All lessons are explicitly linked to learning goals. All learning activities, assignments and resources are aligned with learning goals. All learning goals are covered in the design. Accurate Representation of Content Teacher’s use of content appears to contain numerous inaccuracies. Content seems to be viewed more as isolated skills and facts rather than as part of a larger conceptual structure. Teacher’s use of content appears to be mostly accurate. Shows some awareness of the big ideas or structure of the discipline. Teacher’s use of content appears to be accurate. Focus of the content is congruent with the big ideas or structure of the discipline. Lesson and Unit Structure The lessons with9n the unit are not logically organized organization (e.g., sequenced). The lessons within the unit have some logical organization and appear to be somewhat useful in moving students toward achieving the learning goals. All lessons within the unit are logically organized and appear to be useful in moving students toward achieving the learning goals. Use of a Variety of Instruction, Activities, Assignments and Resources Little variety of instruction, activities, assignments, and resources. Heavy reliance on textbook or single resource (e.g., work sheets). Some variety in instruction, activities, assignments, or resources but with limited contribution to learning. Significant variety across instruction, activities, assignments, and/or resources. This variety makes a clear contribution to learning. Use of Contextual Information and Data to Select Appropriate and Relevant Activities, Assignments and Resources Instruction has not been designed with reference to contextual factors and pre-assessment data. Activities and assignments do not appear productive and appropriate for each student. Some instruction has been designed with reference to contextual factors and pre-assessment data. Some activities and assignments appear productive and appropriate for each student. Most instruction has been designed with reference to contextual factors and pre-assessment data. Most activities and assignments appear productive and appropriate for each student. Use of Technology Technology is inappropriately used OR teacher does not use technology, and no (or inappropriate) rationale is provided. Teacher uses technology but it does not make a significant contribution to teaching and learning OR teacher provides limited rationale for not using technology. Teacher integrates appropriate technology that makes a significant contribution to teaching and learning OR provides a strong rationale for not using technology. Mississippi Valley State University Teacher Work Sample Teaching Process Five Instructional Decision-Making TWS Standard The teacher uses on-going analysis of student learning to make instructional decisions. Task Provide two examples of instructional decision-making based on students’ learning or responses. Directions Think of a time during your unit when a student’s learning or response caused you to modify your original design for instruction. (The resulting modification may affect other students as well.) Cite specific evidence to support your answers to the following: 1. Describe the student’s learning or response that caused you to rethink your plans. The student’s learning or response may come from a planned formative assessment or another source (not the pre-assessment). 2. Describe what you did next and explain why you thought this would improve student progress toward the learning goal. Now think of one more time during your unit when another student’s learning or response caused you to modify a different portion of your original design for instruction. (The resulting modification may affect other students as well.) Cite specific evidence to support your answers to the following: (1) Describe the student’s learning or response that caused you to rethink your plans. The student’s learning or response may come from a planned formative assessment or another source (not the pre-assessment). (2) Describe what you did next and explain why you thought this would improve student progress toward the learning goal. Suggested Page Length: 3-4 Instructional Decision-Making Rubric TWS Standard The teacher uses on-going analysis of student learning to make instructional decisions. Rating Indicator 1 Indicator Not Met 2 Indicator Partially Met 3 Indicator Met Score Sound Professional Practice Many instructional decisions are inappropriate and not pedagogically sound. Instructional decisions are mostly appropriate, but some decisions are not pedagogically sound. Most instructional decisions are pedagogically sound (i.e., they are likely to lead to student learning). Modifications Based on Analysis of Student Learning Teacher treats class as “one plan fits all” with no modifications. Some modifications of the instructional plan are made to address individual student needs, but these are not based on the analysis of student learning, bust practice, or contextual factors. Appropriate modifications of the instructional plan are made to address individual student needs, These modifications are informed by the analysis of student learning/performance, best practice, or contextual factors. Include explanation of why the modifications would improve student progress. Congruence Between Modifications and Learning Goals Modifications in instruction lack congruence with learning goals. Modifications in instruction are somewhat congruent with learning goals. Modifications in instruction are congruent with learning goals. Mississippi Valley State University Teacher Work Sample Teaching Process Six Analysis of Student Learning TWS Standard The teacher uses assessment data to profile student learning and communicate information about student progress and achievement. Task Analyze your assessment data, including pre-/post- assessments and formative assessments to determine students’ progress related to the unit learning goals. Use visual representations and narrative to communicate the performance of the whole class, subgroups, and two individual students. Conclusions drawn from this analysis should be provided in the “Reflection and Self Evaluation” section. Directions In this section, you will analyze data to explain progress and achievement toward learning goals demonstrated by your whole class, subgroups of students, and individual students. Whole class. To analyze the progress of your whole class, create a table that shows pre- and post-assessment data on every student on every learning goal. Then, create a graphic summary that shows the extent to which your students make progress (from pre- to post-) toward the learning criterion that you identified for each learning goal (identified in your Assessment Plan section). Summarize what the graph tells you about your students’ learning in this unit (i.e., the number of students met the criterion). Subgroups. Select a group characteristic (e.g., gender, performance level, socio-economic status, language proficiency) to analyze in terms of one learning goal. Provide a rational for your selection of this characteristic to form subgroups (e.g., girls vs. boys; high vs. middle vs. low performers). Create a graphic representation that compares pre- and post-assessment results for the subgroups on this learning goal. Summarize what these data show about student learning. Individuals. Select two students that demonstrated different levels of performance. Explain why it is important to understand the learning of these particular students. Use pre-, formative, and post-assessment data with examples of the students’ work to draw conclusions about the extent to which these students attained the two learning goals. Graphic representatives are not necessary for this subsection. Suggested Page Length: 4 + charts and student work examples Analysis of Student Learning Rubric TWS Standard The teacher uses assessment data to profile student learning and communicate information about student progress and achievement. Rating Indicator 1 Indicator Not Met 2 Indicator Partially Met 3 Indicator Met Score Interpretation of Student Learning No evidence or reasons provided to support conclusions drawn in “Analysis of Student Learning” sections. Provides evidence but no (or simplistic, superficial) reasons or hypotheses to support conclusions drawn in “Analysis of Student Learning” sections. Uses evidence to support conclusions drawn in “Analysis of Student Learning” section. Explores multiple hypotheses for why some students did not meet learning goals. Insights on Effective Instruction and Assessment Provides no rationale for why some activities or assessments were more successful than others Identifies successful and unsuccessful activities or assessments and superficially explores reasons for their success. Identifies successful and unsuccessful activities and assessments and provides plausible reasons (based on theory or research) for their success or lack thereof. Alignment Among Goals, Instruction and Assessment Does not connect learning goals, instruction, and assessment results in the discussion of student learning and effective instruction and/or the connections are irrelevant or inaccurate Connects learning goals, instruction, and assessment results in the discussion of student learning and effective instruction, but misunderstandings or conceptual gaps are present. Logically connects learning goals, instructions, and assessment results in the discussion of student learning and effective instruction. Implications for Future Teaching Provides no ideas or inappropriate ideas for redesigning learning goals, instruction, and assessment. Provides ideas for redesigning learning goals, instruction, and assessment but offers no rationale for why these changes would improve student learning. Provides ideas for redesigning learning goals, instruction, and assessment and explains why these modifications would improve student learning. Implications for Professional Development Provides no professional learning goals or goals that are not related to the insights and experiences described in this section. Presents professional learning goals that are not strongly related to the insights and experiences described in this section and/or provides a vague plan for meeting the goals. Presents a small number of professional learning goals that clearly emerge from the insights and experiences described in this section. Describes specific steps to meet these goals. Mississippi Valley State University Teacher Work Sample Teaching Process Seven Reflection and Self-Evaluation TWS Standard The teacher analyzes the relationship between his or her instruction and student learning in order to improve teaching practice. Task Reflect on your performance as a teacher and link your performance to student learning results. Evaluate your performance and identify future actions for improved practice and professional growth. Directions Select the learning goal where your students were most successful. Provide two or more possible reasons for this success. Consider your goals, instruction, and assessment along with student characteristics and other contextual factors under your control. Select the learning goal where your students were least successful. Provide two or more possible reasons for this lack of success. Consider your goals, instruction, and assessment along with student characteristics and other contextual factors under your control. Discuss what you could do differently or better in the future to improve your students’ performance. Reflection on possibilities for professional development. Describe at least two professional learning goals that emerged from your insights and experiences with the TWS. Identify two specific steps you will take to improve your performance in the critical area(s) you identified. Suggested Page Length: 2 Reflection and Self-Evaluation Rubric TWS Standard The teacher analyzes the relationship between his or her instruction and student learning in order to improve teaching practice. Rating Indicator 1 Indicator Not Met 2 Indicator Partially Met 3 Indicator Met Score Interpretation Of Student Learning No evidence or reasons provided to support conclusions drawn in “Analysis of Student Learning” section. Provides evidence but no (or simplistic, superficial) reasons or hypotheses to support conclusions drawn in “Analysis of Student Learning” section. Uses evidence to support conclusions drawn in “Analysis of Student Learning” section. Explores multiple hypotheses for why some students did not meet learning goals. Insights on Effective Instruction and Assessment Provides no rationale for why some activities or assessments were more successful than others. Identifies successful and unsuccessful activities or assessments and superficially explores reasons for their success or lack thereof (no use of theory or research) Identifies successful and unsuccessful activities and assessments and provides plausible reasons (based on theory or research) for their success or lack thereof. Alignment Among Goals, Instruction and Assessment Does not connect learning goals, instruction, and assessment results in the discussion of student learning and effective instruction and/or the connections are irrelevant or inaccurate. Connects learning goals, instruction, and assessment results in the discussion of student learning and effective instruction, but misunderstandings or conceptual gaps are present. Logically connects learning goals, instruction, assessment results in the discussion of student learning and effective instruction. Implications for Future Teaching Provides no ideas or inappropriate ideas for redesigning learning goals, instruction, and assessment. Provides ideas for redesigning learning goals, instruction, and assessment but offers no rationale for why these changes would improve student learning. Provides ideas for redesigning learning goals, instruction, and assessment and explains why these modifications would improve student learning. Implications for Professional Development Provides no professional learning goals or goals that are not related to the insights and experiences described in this section. Presents professional learning goals that arte not strongly related to the insights and experiences described in this section and/or provides a vague plan for meeting the goals. Presents a small number of professional learning goals that clearly emerge from the insights and experiences described in this section. Describes specific steps to meet these goals. MISSISSIPPI VALLEY STATE UNIVERSITY Teacher Work Sample Rubric and Scoring Guide Teacher Candidate: ____________________________ I.D. Number: ________________ Grade/Subject: ________________________________ Date: ______________________ Evaluator: _______________________________________________________________ Skill Unacceptable (1) Acceptable (2) Target (3) 1. Student Information Student information is missing or incomplete Student information is included and is correct. There may be minor information missing. All necessary information is included in the Student section of the Plan. 2. Lesson Plan Goals Goals are missing or incomplete. Goals are included, but may not completely cover all areas of the lesson plan needing to be adapted. Goals are well-written, clear, and easy to understand. All important areas of the need for adaptation are included. 3. Student Learning Experience/ history and description of behaviors Description of classroom situation is incomplete or missing. Candidate explains and describes students’ behaviors and setting, but does not describe clearly enough for others to see the existing problems. Candidate clearly describes setting, student’s behavior, and interactions with other students and clearly defines problematic behavior in the setting. 4. Identify And Prioritize problems Behaviors are not clearly defines nor has attention been given to clearly identifying problem behaviors. All behaviors are not listed. Behaviors are defined, but lacking in depth in the prioritization of problems. Prioritization indicates a lack of clear understanding of the contributing factors of the problem. Behaviors are clearly defined, depth exists in the discussion of the problem behaviors and their prioritization. A clear idea of how the plan will be utilized to improve instruction is included. 5. Identify Target behaviors and domains Target behaviors are either missing or do not reflect the cited prioritized problems. Target behaviors are valid and do reflect the prioritized problems, however, target behaviors are not the most effective. Target behaviors clearly are linked to the problems cited in the prioritized problem and are identified as being in a logical and coherent order for solving the cited problems. 6. Intervention Choice of intervention is not appropriate for the target behavior or does not clearly address the problem. Choice of intervention is appropriate for the target behavior and logically addresses the stated problems. Some problems exist as to the clarity of the expressed intervention. Choice of intervention is clearly the best choice for the target behavior. Other interventions logically follow after the initial intervention and are clearly linked to problem behaviors. 7. Assessment and Assessment Results Assessments are not appropriately administered or chosen for this target behavior or problem. Assessment may be incorrectly used for what it is measuring. Assessments are appropriately administered and selected for this target behavior. Assessment adequately measures what it is selected to measure and yields an appropriate outcome for giving information related to the target behavior and intervention. Assessments are appropriately administered and selected for the target behavior. The assessment yields the desired results that allows the candidate to make well-informed decisions about planning and carrying out the adaptive instruction. 8. Action Plan including resources and materials and secondary assessment Action plan is weak and does not include appropriate resources and materials, nor does it include realistic or valid secondary assessment. One or more items may be missing that should have contributed to the plan’s success. Action plan is adequate in including explanations, appropriate resources and materials, and realistic secondary assessment plans. Most of the items are included and any omissions are minimal. Action plan is designed for success and includes appropriate explanations, resources, materials, and secondary assessment plans. All items are included and fulfill the planned outcome. 9. Evaluation and Interpretation Evaluation and Interpretation are unclear and do not actually relate to the targeted behaviors or action plan. Evaluation and interpretation, although they lack depth, do address the targeted behaviors and action plans. Outcomes are clearly presented in a coherent manner and it is evident that some improvement has occurred. Evaluation and interpretation of the outcomes is clearly defined based on assessment data and demonstrate specific content that has been learned by the student. The explanation is clearly and concisely written and includes all necessary components. 10. Student Learning Outcomes Student outcomes are either not included or are poorly stated. Student outcomes are clearly described and appropriate evidence is available. Student outcomes are clearly stated, documented by work samples and assessment data and indicate what objectives have been met by the adaptive instructional plan. 26
TP.4 Design for Instruction Teacher Work Sample Teaching Process Four Design for Instruction TWS Standard The teacher designs instruction for specific learning goals, student characteristics and nee
10 Teaching Processes, TWS Standards, and Indicators Teaching is an interactive process that includes preparation, implementation, evaluation, and plan adjustment. Teachers are conversant with the concepts of planning and delivering classes. The phases of review and correction are often forgotten. It is straightforward to misunderstand whether a specific teaching style or strategy has been successful without regular classroom assessments or some other means of collecting feedback. Students can be an excellent resource for verifying whether or not a teacher’s class pedagogy is (or isn’t) working by relying on them for feedback. The best way to improve your classroom management skills is to conduct regular self-evaluations and get input from your students and instructor. Students’ strengths, needs, and prior experiences are all taken into consideration when applicants develop a Teacher Work Sample that incorporates a wide range of teaching methods. A teacher’s ability to support learning is demonstrated through this performance assessment by meeting the TWS requirements. The indicators assist the teacher in meeting all the goals and objectives of teaching processes and TWS standards. TP 1. Contextual Factors Several components work in conjunction to improve students’ accomplishments. They are regarded as contextual factors. Contextual factors are the means of categorizing these outside impacts. They are features of the community, the learners, and the learning institution itself that may influence the learning and teaching process (Renner, 2019). To thrive in their classrooms, educators must participate in contextual planning by predicting their learners requirements based on their contextual info. Community, district, and school affect students to unfathomable extents. Teachers should familiarize themselves with their learning institution’s surrounding community by learning about its demographics, educational priorities, and socioeconomic status. Greenwood Leflore Consolidation School District will be the site of my student teaching experience. Greenwood Leflore Consolidation School District is located at 401 Howard St, Greenwood, MS 38930. The school has a total of 4,114 students. The total population of the county is 32,317 people. The school’s population has been increasing, and projections show that by 2023, the school will have a student population of around 5,000. Greenwood has an estimated poverty rate of 36% (United States Census Bureau, 2022). When a student is poor, their experience in the classroom is significantly affected. A teacher’s context should be considered when teaching in the school and classroom. The classroom’s physical dimensions, layout, and available equipment are all examples of contextual influences. It implies that schools more likely to be over-populated will lack most of their learning resources. Race or ethnicity is another factor that brings about shortcomings in the learning process. If the majority of the population in a particular geographical area belongs to one ethnic group, others will feel inferior. Therefore, this will affect students learning by lowering their morale as they feel left out. The political climate and community support are other vital elements under this contextual factor. Leaders in Greenwood support the education system and school visions, improving the teaching processes. Ninety-three percent of the students are black, four percent are Hispanic, two percent are white, and there are 13 Asians. Greenwood High School’s mission is to provide a high-quality learning environment that will unite, educate, and equip all students for college and careers. Classroom factors influence the learning processes in diverse ways. One of the classroom factors is technology. Technological resources are available for teaching in Greenwood High School. Also, parents are involved in children learning in Greenwood High School. Their more involvement in their children’s education affairs in the classroom ensures that students are on top of their game while learning. It also helps them understand the challenges their children face while learning. Students’ characteristics affect the teaching-learning process enormously. Students’ age, gender, culture, and personal interests all play a role in the context in which they learn. Based on these characteristics, educators should be able to anticipate the requirements of their students. At Greenwood High School, this is done. In the classroom where I teach, there are thirty-five kids in total. There were twenty-nine African-American children, two whites, and four Hispanic children among the students. One notable difference was that 20 pupils performed above grade level, but 12 students performed below grade level, needing additional teaching for those students in the class. Furthermore, since different students with different abilities in the class, the lessons had to be tailored to their needs. Remember to keep the students in mind when developing a lesson plan. Because many classrooms contain kids with a wide range of abilities, teachers must tailor their instruction to meet the specific needs of each student. To do this, differentiate education, improve students’ self-monitoring abilities, and provide remedial and enrichment chances during each class session are effective strategies. As a result of some students’ learning issues, a list of revisions from their Individualized Education Plan (IEP) should be provided to ensure that they are receiving equitable instruction. Other students may or may not be suffering from a learning disability but are generally sluggish learners. Students’ particular characteristics may necessitate changes in the length and range of activities teachers plan. When selecting an activity, it is critical to consider the cultural preferences of the students who will be participating. For this reason, an educator with a less competitive lecture would not utilize winning as a motivational tool. However, selecting an activity that takes into account the needs of pupils from varied cultural backgrounds is necessary. At Greenwood High School, teachers take into account cultural backgrounds in teaching. Teachers in less competitive classes would not use winning as an incentive to motivate their students because teamwork is valued more highly than competitiveness in some cultures. The contextual characteristics of the learners, learning environment, and community significantly influence instructional planning assessment. The community in Greenwood impacts instructional planning by ensuring that the needs of the students are met within and outside the classroom. A student and a teacher are both actively involved in the learning process during a lesson. Teachers need to get students engaged in the learning process to achieve their educational objectives. As a teacher at Greenwood High School, I will effectively adjust the curriculum and teaching methods by determining the instructional implications of the concepts I want to teach. However, certain factors will affect my contextual planning and unit implementation. The two main factors are using the polling method and using diagnostic questioning. It is possible to use polling to get rapid feedback on a specific topic or the current educational session in general. In order to get a better grasp of pupils’ understanding of concepts and ideas, I will utilize diagnostic questions. Instructional Implications Teachers must recognize the importance of remediation, help, and relationship development in light of the school’s dismal test performance. Students from low-income families who do not obtain homework assistance or adequate nutrition may fall behind in their academics due to their circumstances. These are crucial indicators for educators to address right away to make strides toward closing any learning gaps within the school (Narkon et al. 2013). Second, disruptive kids in class frequently may hurt themselves and their peers. Students who listen to the teacher and participate in debates are distracted. After the disruption, more students are likely to be impacted negatively. Impact on their grades. As a result, when it comes time to deliver an evaluation, students may find themselves in a difficult situation because they were unprepared. These considerations must be considered while designing a lesson plan to prevent students from being disruptive. When teachers add intriguing and engaging activities into their classes, they are less likely to deal with disruptive or disruptive pupils. Implementing this lesson, I would start with a short nonfiction passage that is slightly too easy for my students when I first explain the concept of identifying text evidence to my class. Students will not read a chapter if it is too challenging and above their level of irritation. They also won’t help you develop these crucial talents. Another reason to keep the reading short and simple is that students need to feel successful and confident with this new skill. Furthermore, rather than focusing on comprehension of a difficult text, we want our pupils’ primary attention to be on locating and labeling answers in the passage. Text-dependent questions should be present in the chosen passage, indicating that the information is directly mentioned in the reading. Students must go back through the reading selection and find, identify, and underline the text evidence they require in order to answer particular questions. TP 2. Learning goals In this TWS standard, the teacher sets significant, challenging, varied, and appropriate learning goals. The goal of RI.9-10.1 is for students to cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. Goal 1 (G1) This goal focuses on how students will draw inferences from a text based on his/her ability to read and comprehend with 75% accuracy. Goal 2 (G2): This goal focuses on how students will use textual evidence to support/prove his/her inference because inferences are NOT explicitly stated with 75% accuracy. Goal 3 (G3): This goal focus on how students will use to thoroughly analyze a text, a reader must be able to identify not only key ideas, but also the details that contribute to those key ideas. Goal 4 (G4): This goal focuses on how students will cite evidence from a text both verbally and with standard citation format. Using Mississippi Department of Education (MDE) standards as a guide, the learning objectives for this series of lessons were established. Based the standards that were set for website of the Mississippi department of Education, standards were designed with an aim of equipping students with various opportunities to learn and demonstrate what they know while still being held to a high academic standard. These courses did not use the extended criteria, despite both youngsters having cognitive difficulties (Narkon et al. 2013). Students should have prerequisite knowledge of how to draw inferences from a text based on his/her ability to read and comprehend. Student should use textual evidence to support/prove his/her inference because inferences are NOT explicitly stated evidence. According to Mississippi standards for ELA, students should must consider personal experience to draw conclusions and comprehend literary works such as stories, plays, and poems. They should also annotate a text while reading, make inferences based on, textual evidence, distinguish important facts from “extra” details, draw from personal experience, and identify strong evidence to support an inference or claim from a text. These standards were selected with the assistance of the student’s regular intervention expert because, while they are below the student’s current grade level, they are within the student’s instructional classes in reading. According to Bloom’s Taxonomy, the objectives given for this lesson unit would be categorized as analytical and synthesis abilities to be successful. Thus, students will be required to break down reading passages into many bits and sections based on pre-determined criteria and then use that knowledge to piece the pieces back together as a whole in the form of a summary of what they have read. References Renner, R. (2019, March 3). What Contextual Factors Will Influence Classroom Management? Retrieved from Theclassroom.com: https://www.theclassroom.com/contextual-factors-influence-classroom-management-7857038.html Narkon, D. E. & Wells, J. C. (2013). Improving Reading Comprehension for Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities: UDL Enhanced Story Mapping. Preventing School Failure, 57 (4), 231-239. United States Census Bureau. (2022). Greenwood city, Mississippi. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/greenwoodcitymississippi
TP.4 Design for Instruction Teacher Work Sample Teaching Process Four Design for Instruction TWS Standard The teacher designs instruction for specific learning goals, student characteristics and nee
Teacher Work Sample Willie M Shoddie Summer School Session ll/2020 Mississippi Valley State University College of Education ED 509/Dimension of Learning/Internship Table of Contents Contextual Factors and Student Knowledge Pages 1-5 Learning Objectives Pages 6-9 Assessment Plan Pages 10-13 Design for Instruction Page 14-15 Instructional Decision Making Pages 16-17 Reflection and Self Evaluation Pages 18-21 REFERENCES & BIBLIOGRAPHY Pages 22 Contextual Factors TWS Standard: The teacher uses information about the learning –teaching context and student individual differences to set learning goals and plan instruction and assessment. Community, School, and Classroom Factors The community plays a big part in the learning process and school achievement. Some communities tend to become a very high transient area. Many people move around depending on where jobs are located, which leads to students coming and going throughout the academic school year. This instability causes a disruption in teaching. Achievement gaps are created because student instruction is not consistent, which leads to poor motivation within student learning. Many people think that there aren’t many contextual factors within the teaching profession. They think that the teacher teaches the lesson, the students listen quietly, and then they complete their assignments. While that may be a “dream” classroom, is it far from reality. There are many implications that go along with the profession. The surrounding community, as well as, the school and school districts have a lot of contributing factors that affect the teaching and learning process. Classroom dynamics and student characteristics are also important factors when it comes to teacher planning and student learning. Teachers need to take all of these factors into account to ensure that all the needs of our students are met. School Districts have an immense influence when it comes to the learning and teaching process. They are the ones that pave the way for academic success. Lately, many districts have been going through a budget shortfall. They are being forced to lay off teachers and fill the positions with long term substitutes. Many long term substitutes do not have the same educational background and training that licensed teachers have, which may result in academic failure with our students. The Greenwood Leflore Consolidate School District is committed to achieving the district’s mission to unify, educate, and prepare all students for college and career by providing a high-quality learning experience. As a team, we provide services in support of students with disabilities, early childhood education, gifted and talented students, 504 plans, academic and behavior interventions, English Language Learners, and school improvement efforts. I believe education is an individual, unique experience for every child.  In order for children to benefit from what schools offer, as a leader, I believe we all help shape a district culture which mobilizes people to do the work necessary to improve the systems, structures, and practices that support and sustain an accessible, rigorous, coherent and articulated curriculum for all students, high-quality teaching, and successful student learning.  Greenwood High School is a public school located in Greenwood, MS. We house 615 students in grades 9th – 12th with a student-teacher ratio of 22 to 1. Greenwood High School offers a strong basic instructional program for our students as well as a comprehensive program designed to challenge our more advanced students. The school administration solicits the support of students, parents, and faculty in helping this school retain its rating. It is our sincere hope that all graduates of GHS will continue to uphold the fine record that Greenwood High School students have made in the past. The mission of the Greenwood Leflore Consolidated District is to unite, educate, and prepare all students for college and career by providing a high-quality learning experience.  Achievement: Leflore County School District found that students who attended school regularly were more likely to pass reading and math assessments than students who didn’t attend school regularly. Opportunity: For older students, being in school every day gives them a chance to learn more about college and scholarship opportunities, and to take the important exams they need to build a successful academic record. Exposure to the English language: Regular school attendance can also help students who are learning English by giving them the chance to master the skills and information they need more quickly and accurately — even in other subjects! Being part of the school community: Just by being present at school, your child is learning how to be a good citizen by participating in the school community, learning valuable social skills, and developing a broader world view. The importance of education: Your commitment to school attendance will also send a message to your child that education is a priority for your family, going to school every day is a critical part of educational success, and that it’s important to take your responsibilities seriously — including going to school. Student characteristics I have a total of 43 students that I service in the various history classes. Students often come into the classroom with a whole lot of “baggage.” There are many factors that students have to deal with which can affect their learning process. Many classrooms today are multicultural. It is important that teachers understand the cultural differences within their classroom, and get to know their students. Students may come from a background where education is not well respected and higher education is not an option. This may have an effect on those individual student’s achievement. Teachers will need to modify and engage learning to help motivate these students. Students’ varied approaches to learning . The term learning styles is widely used to describe how learners gather, sift through, interpret, organize, come to conclusions about, and “store” information for further use. This notion of individualized learning styles has gained widespread recognition in education theory and classroom management strategy. Individual learning styles depend on cognitive, emotional and environmental factors, as well as one’s prior experience. In other words: everyone’s different. It is important for educators to understand the differences in their students’ learning styles, so that they can implement best practice strategies into their daily activities, curriculum and assessment. Students’ skills and prior learning At Greenwood High School we use a variety programs and Assessments, alone with the Benchmark Assessments to gather data to drive instructions. Compass Learning and Reading Plus have become the two leading computer-adaptive tests administer, giving us more time to do what we love and that’s to teach. It also adds new tools, new content, and new reports, so we can get a broader range of data with which to drive their daily instruction and practice Instructional Implications My students will become self-directed learners, effectively seeking out and using resources to assist them, including teachers, peers, and print/digital materials. Students will read purposefully and listen attentively to deepen their understanding of content. Students will be engaged, open-minded, critical readers and listeners. They will refine and share their knowledge through writing and speaking with an authentic audience. I will be primarily teaching Physical Education and Health, the primary contributing factors for developing an instructional package suitable for every student. Instructional strategies include but not limited to group team building, demonstrating and actively engaging in assigned activities. Then students will be encouraged to constantly set and reset goals directed towards promoting and living a healthy lifestyle. In my classrooms, a Schedule is used as the framework for instruction. Instruction is based on the following sequence: Explicit Teaching – The teacher demonstrates, models, and explains the focus of the lesson, skill, or concept.  Guided Instruction – Students are supported by the teacher in Guided Reading Groups, which are a necessary, daily component of the literacy block. Students are selected for their guided reading group according to their reading level, not skill deficiencies. Guided Reading groups are the setting for students to learn about all areas of literacy in an integrated way.  Collaborative Learning – Students work with peers in small groups or with partners to practice skills with support. This is the beginning of the transfer of responsibility from the teacher to the student. Independent Learning – Students have dedicated time each day for Independent Reading. Students read self-selected texts that are appropriately leveled. Teachers devise accountability measures to ensure that students are reading and comprehending. Learning Goals Adventure Education 1. Demonstrate the ability to Set Effective goals for students Write clear and measurable goals. Create a specific action plan for each goal. Read your goals daily and help your students visualize accomplishing them. Reflect on their progress to see if they are on target. The learner will . . . work effectively with a partner or group to complete a task or to achieve a common goal explain and identify strategies in goal setting gain a knowledge and understanding of the reasons for and importance of the activity 2. Apply knowledge of safety and appropriate behaviors Describe the relationship between school-age development and behavior. Explain boundaries and expectations and why they are important. Develop techniques for managing and guiding behavior in the school learning environment The learner will . . . demonstrate care and use of equipment in a safe and proper manner display behaviors of acceptance of others, willingness to help others, and courteous interactions recognize potentially high risk situations in rock climbing and adventure activities in order to prevent accidents adhere to safety rules in daily activities develop positive communication skills that will contribute to the safety & success of self and others 3. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of health and skill related fitness. Essential Learning: Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of health and skill related fitness. Learner Objectives The learner will . . . define and give examples of the health-related components of fitness: muscular endurance, muscular strength, cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, and body composition as they relate to the fitness activity perform muscular strength and endurance skills (push-ups and sit-ups) define aerobic and anaerobic fitness understand the target heart rate zone and calculate his/her own target heart rate 2. Develop attitude, knowledge, and skills to maintain physical fitness and for the enjoyment of lifelong activities. It is always the Educators to want their learners to succeed both in and out of the classroom. The idea is to make sure that once our children leave school, they no longer need us. In essence, our learners must become teachers and leaders. The point is that they never stop being learner Learner Objectives The learner will . . . demonstrate the ability to set and achieve personal goals develop appreciation for personal performance understand “how” and “why” the body functions and its relationship to physical activity develop the ability to have fun while participating in a variety of fitness activities develop an awareness that relaxation can be achieved through exercise develop awareness that tension and stress can be released through exercise develop an understanding of the benefits of physical activity understand the relationships between weight control, exercise, and good health Assessment Plan Daily Performance Grade: (70% of grade) Majority of the student’s grade is compiled from their everyday participation in the classroom and of the classroom setting. This encourages students to participate in each class to earn necessary credit as part of their daily participation portion of their grade. Students are encouraged to maximize their daily grade through consistent participation, volunteering in skill development and showing proper behavior towards teacher, self and others. 1. An open-ended question that gets them writing/talking Avoid yes/no questions and phrases like “Does this make sense?” In response to these questions, students usually answer ‘yes.’ So, of course, it’s surprising when several students later admit that they’re lost. To help students grasp ideas in class, ask open-ended questions that require students that get students writing/talking. They will undoubtedly reveal more than you would’ve thought to ask directly. 2. Ask students to reflect During the last five minutes of class ask students to reflect on the lesson and write down what they’ve learned. Then, ask them to consider how they would apply this concept or skill in a practical setting. 3. Use quizzes Give a short quiz at the end of class to check for comprehension. 4. Ask students to summarize Have students summarize or paraphrase important concepts and lessons. This can be done orally, visually, or otherwise. 5. Hand signals Hand signals can be used to rate or indicate students’ understanding of content. Students can show anywhere from five fingers to signal maximum understanding to one finger to signal minimal understanding. This strategy requires engagement by all students and allows the teacher to check for understanding within a large group. 6. Response cards Index cards, signs, whiteboards, magnetic boards, or other items are simultaneously held up by all students in class to indicate their response to a question or problem presented by the teacher. Using response devices, the teacher can easily note the responses of individual students while teaching the whole group. 7. Four corners A quick and easy snapshot of student understanding, Four Corners provides an opportunity for student movement while permitting the teacher to monitor and assess understanding. The teacher poses a question or makes a statement. Students then move to the appropriate corner of the classroom to indicate their response to the prompt. For example, the corner choices might include “I strongly agree,” “I strongly disagree,” “I agree somewhat,” and “I’m not sure.” 8. Think-pair-share Students take a few minutes to think about the question or prompt. Next, they pair with a designated partner to compare thoughts before sharing with the whole class. 9. Choral reading Students mark text to identify a particular concept and chime in, reading the marked text aloud in unison with the teacher. This strategy helps students develop fluency; differentiate between the reading of statements and questions; and practice phrasing, pacing, and reading dialogue. 10. One question quiz Ask a single focused question with a specific goal that can be answered within a minute or two. You can quickly scan the written responses to assess student understanding. Design for Instruction We as educators must design instruction for potential students who have broad ranges with respect to ability, disability, age, reading level, learning style, language, race, and ethnicity. Even students with disabilities. The instructional design process consists of determining the needs of the learners, defining the end goals and objectives of instruction, designing and planning assessment tasks, and designing teaching and learning activities to ensure the quality of instruction.. Objectives articulate the knowledge and skills you want students to acquire by the end of the course Assessments allow the instructor to check the degree to which the students are meeting the learning objectives Instructional Strategies are chosen to foster student learning towards meeting the objectives The focus of instructional design and development of effective instructional strategies. Instructional strategies and learning activities are synonymous throughout this section. When appropriate, a single instructional strategy will cover one objective or a set of objectives, but most often a combination of instructional strategies is required to accomplish a single learning objective (Carnegie Mellon, “Articulate Your Learning Objectives”). Instructional Decision Making This is a systematic process of using student achievement and other data to guide instructional decisions. The process of using data systematically to make instructional decisions provides a framework for aligning resources to meet the needs of groups of students as well as individual students. Formative assessment is a process used by teachers as part of instruction that provides evidence and actionable feedback to move learning forward by (1) adjusting learning strategies, (2) adjusting goals, and/or adjusting instructional next steps to improve students’ understanding of intended disciplinary. Example: Instructional Decision Making: Starting a book club with the classroom Create reading time and Station Use Task Cards. … Interview Students. … Target Different Senses within Lessons. … Share Your Own Strengths and Weaknesses. Use the Think-Pair-Share Strategy. Make Time for Journaling. Evaluation and Reflection I am really thankful to you! You did not only teach me what is good in life but also inspired me to do good in life. You are a great teacher and a good human being. Thank you for your contribution to building my life. Why do we do certain thing well a cause is something that produces an event or condition; an effect is what results from an event or condition. Well I had no choice in this matter, I needed to write the paper or get an F in the class. Well I am writing the paper point blank! Thankful to God for a teacher that wasn’t going to give up on me and not let me get away without doing the work. So I look to the positive side of the matter and it placed me one step closer to finishing school. So now writing this paper has become a must do not a choice. I often sit and I wonder what my daughter would think now. She would say momma its taking you all week to do that paper. You should have been finished. I miss her every minute of every day. I take comfort knowing that her life touched so many but I mourn the loss of time with her. It hurts me to know I will never talk to her again or crack up laughing with her. The worst part about is we would be laughing me and how I found out about my having to write the paper. EXPECTATIONS OF STUDENTS Respect yourself, the teacher & others Show respect for the teacher, yourself and others at all times. Respect others’ property.  Avoid touching or writing on anything that does not belong to you (including desks, textbooks, teacher’s belongings, walls, chalkboard, etc.). Don’t expect that others will clean-up your messes. Please pick-up after yourself.  Respect yourself and the rest of us by using appropriate language and wearing appropriate clothing. Be a kind person.   Put forth your best effort at all times Always do your own best work. Put learning ahead of getting good grades.  Put quality ahead of just getting it done. Be prepared for class each day Come prepared with all materials necessary: §         An organized class binder containing all necessary materials and handouts §         Loose-leaf paper, pens (blue or black), and pencils §         A red or purple pen for grading in class or underlining important elements in note taking §         Highlighters for emphasizing important text §         A planner to help keep you organized – the most successful students are organized. Follow directions when given When directions are given, do your best to follow them the first time.  If you are confused or have questions, ask.  I would rather have you stop class to clarify than be off task while everyone else is working. Pay attention, participate and ask questions Engage in what is going on in the classroom.  If you have a question, ask it!  Otherwise, I might not know until the test that you did not understand something.  There are no stupid questions, and chances are, if you are wondering about it, someone else in the class is to.  Be proactive about your learning and don’t be afraid to ask for help.  If you feel most comfortable waiting until after class, that is okay, too, but do keep communication open between us. Preserve a positive learning environment Student actions that interfere with teaching or learning in the classroom will NOT be tolerated.  Use class time to learn history/government.  Please do not spend your time grooming, sleeping, talking, writing notes, playing cards, listening to you Ipod, text-messaging friends, or doing work for other classes. Minimize classroom interruptions by arriving to class on time and not leaving the classroom during the hour. REFERENCES & BIBLIOGRAPHY http://glcsd.org(Mississippi) http://www.mde.k12.ms.us/curriculum-and-instruction/curriculum-and-nstruction-other-links/response-to-intervention-teacher-support-team 2003 – 2020 DeKalb County Board of Education | 1701 Mountain Industrial Boulevard · Stone Mountain, GA 30083 | P: 678.676.120 Hannaford, Carla. Smart Moves, Why Learning is Not All in Your Head, Great Ocean Publishers, Arlington, VA. 1995. Edited by; Julie Newsome (Idaho State University), Jean Behrend (California State University, Fresno), Lillie West (Millersville University), and Georgea Langer (University of Eastern Michigan). Quill, Scott. “Saving Generation XXL, www.menshealth.com. October 2006 No Standing Around in My Gym, By JD Hughes Coe, Pivarnik, Womack, Reeves, and Malina. Effects of Physical Education and Activity Levels on Academic Achievement in Children, Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine, 2006. ASCD, ASCD Calls for a “New Compact” to Educate the Whole Child, Education Update, March 2007, pg 1 and 8

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