1 page essay ( 300-400 words)

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1 page essay ( 300-400 words)

1 page essay ( 300-400 words)
T he F our C re atio ns www.g ly .u ga.e d u /r a ils b ack/C S/C SFourC re atio ns.h tm l This s to ry c o m es fr o m th e H opi p eople o f n orth ern A riz o na. ” H opi” m eans ” P eople o f P eace “. T he s to rie s h ere w ere r e co rd ed in th e 1 950s b y O sw ald W hit e B ear F re deric ks a nd h is w if e N aom i fr o m th e s to ry te llin g o f o ld er H opi a t th e v illa ge o f O ra ib i, w hic h tr e e-rin g d atin g in dic a te s h as b een in habit e d b y th e H opi s in ce a t le ast 1 1 50 A D . T he w orld a t fir s t w as e ndle ss s p ace in w hic h e xis te d o nly th e C re ato r, T a io w a. T his w orld h ad n o tim e, n o s h ape, a nd n o lif e , e xce pt in th e m in d o f th e C re ato r. E ve ntu ally th e in fin it e c re ato r c re ate d th e fin it e in S otu kn ang, w hom h e c a lle d h is n ephew a nd w hom h e c re ate d a s h is a gent to e sta blis h n in e u niv e rs e s. S otu kn ang g ath ere d t o geth er m atte r fr o m th e e ndle ss s p ace to m ake th e n in e s o lid w orld s. T hen th e C re ato r in str u cte d h im to g ath er t o geth er th e w ate rs fr o m th e e ndle ss s p ace a nd p la ce th em o n th ese w orld s to m ake la nd a nd s e a. W hen S otu kn ang h ad d one th at, th e C re ato r in str u cte d h im to g ath er to geth er a ir to m ake w in ds a nd b re eze s o n th ese w orld s. T he fo urth a ct o f c re atio n w it h w hic h th e C re ato r c h arg ed S otu kn ang w as th e c re atio n o f lif e . S otu kn ang w ent to t h e w orld th at w as to fir s t h ost lif e a nd th ere h e c re ate d S pid er W om an, a nd h e g ave h er th e p ow er to c re ate lif e . F ir s t S pid er W om an to ok s o m e e arth a nd m ix e d it w it h s a liv a to m ake tw o b ein gs. O ve r th em s h e s a ng th e C re atio n S ong, a nd th ey c a m e to lif e . S he in str u cte d o ne o f th em , P oqanghoya , to g o a cro ss th e e arth a nd s o lid if y it . S he i n str u cte d th e o th er, P alo ngaw hoya , to s e nd o ut s o und to r e so nate th ro ugh th e e arth , s o th at th e e arth v ib ra te d w it h t h e e nerg y o f th e C re ato r. P oqanghoya a nd P alo ngaw hoya w ere d esp atc h ed to th e p ole s o f th e e arth to k e ep it r o ta tin g. T hen S pid er W om an m ade a ll th e p la nts , th e flo w ers , th e b ush es, a nd th e tr e es. L ik e w is e s h e m ade th e b ir d s a nd a nim als , a gain u sin g e arth a nd s in gin g th e C re atio n S ong. W hen a ll th is w as d one, s h e m ade h um an b ein gs, u sin g y e llo w , r e d, w hit e , a nd b la ck e arth m ix e d w it h h er s a liv a . S in gin g th e C re atio n S ong, s h e m ade fo ur m en, a nd t h en in h er o w n fo rm s h e m ade fo ur w om en. A t fir s t th ey h ad a s o ft s p ot in th eir fo re heads, a nd a lt h ough it s o lid if ie d, i t le ft a s p ace th ro ugh w hic h th ey c o uld h ear th e v o ic e o f S otu kn ang a nd th eir C re ato r. B eca use th ese p eople c o uld n ot s p eak, S pid er W om an c a lle d o n S otu kn ang, w ho g ave th em fo ur la nguages. H is o nly in str u ctio ns w ere fo r th em t o r e sp ect th eir C re ato r a nd to liv e in h arm ony w it h h im . T hese p eople s p re ad a cro ss th e e arth a nd m ult ip lie d. D esp it e th eir fo ur la nguages, in th ose d ays th ey c o uld u nders ta nd e ach o th er’s th oughts a nyw ay, a nd fo r m any y e ars th ey a nd th e a nim als liv e d to geth er a s o ne. E ve ntu ally , h ow eve r, th ey b egan to d iv id e, b oth th e p eople fr o m th e a nim als a nd th e p eople fr o m e ach o th er, a s th ey f o cu se d o n th eir d if fe re nce s r a th er th an th eir s im ila rit ie s. A s d iv is io n a nd s u sp ic io n b eca m e m ore w id esp re ad, o nly a f e w p eople fr o m e ach o f th e fo ur g ro ups s till r e m em bere d th eir C re ato r. S otu kn ang a ppeare d b efo re th ese fe w a nd t o ld th em th at h e a nd th e C re ato r w ould h ave to d estr o y th is w orld , a nd th at th ese fe w w ho r e m em bere d th e C re ato r m ust tr a ve l a cro ss th e la nd, fo llo w in g a c lo ud a nd a s ta r, to fin d r e fu ge. T hese p eople b egan th eir tr e ks fr o m th e p la ce s w here th ey liv e d, a nd w hen th ey fin ally c o nve rg ed S otu kn ang a ppeare d a gain . H e o pened a h uge a nt m ound a nd to ld th ese p eople to g o d ow n in it to liv e w it h th e a nts w hile h e d estr o ye d th e w orld w it h fir e , a nd h e to ld th em to l e arn fr o m th e a nts w hile th ey w ere th ere . T he p eople w ent d ow n a nd liv e d w it h th e a nts , w ho h ad s to re ro om s o f f o od th at th ey h ad g ath ere d in th e s u m mer, a s w ell a s c h am bers in w hic h th e p eople c o uld liv e . T his w ent o n fo r q uit e a w hile , b eca use a fte r S otu kn ang c le anse d th e w orld w it h fir e it to ok a lo ng tim e fo r th e w orld to c o ol o ff. A s th e a nts ‘ fo od r a n lo w , th e p eople r e fu se d th e fo od, b ut th e a nts k e pt fe edin g th em a nd o nly tig hte ned th eir o w n b elt s , w hic h is w hy a nts h ave s u ch tin y w ais ts to day. F in ally S otu kn ang w as d one m akin g th e s e co nd w orld , w hic h w as n ot q uit e a s b eautif u l a s th e fir s t. A gain h e a dm onis h ed th e p eople to r e m em ber th eir C re ato r a s th ey a nd th e a nts th at h ad h oste d th em s p re ad a cro ss th e 1/2 e arth . T he p eople m ult ip lie d r a pid ly a nd s o on c o ve re d th e e ntir e e arth . T hey d id n ot liv e w it h th e a nim als , h ow eve r, b eca use th e a nim als in th is s e co nd w orld w ere w ild a nd u nfr ie ndly . In ste ad th e p eople liv e d in v illa ges a nd b uilt r o ads b etw een th ese , s o th at tr a de s p ra ng u p. T hey s to re d g oods a nd tr a ded th ose fo r g oods fr o m e ls e w here , a nd s o on th ey w ere tr a din g fo r th in gs th ey d id n ot n eed. A s th eir d esir e to h ave m ore a nd m ore g re w , th ey b egan to f o rg et th eir C re ato r, a nd s o on w ars o ve r r e so urc e s a nd tr a de w ere b re akin g o ut b etw een v illa ges. F in ally S otu kn ang a ppeare d b efo re th e fe w p eople w ho s till r e m em bere d th e C re ato r, a nd a gain h e s e nt th em to liv e w it h th e a nts w hile h e d estr o ye d th is c o rru pt w orld . T his tim e h e o rd ere d P oqanghoya a nd P alo ngaw hoya to a bandon th eir p osts a t th e p ole s, a nd s o on th e w orld s p un o ut o f c o ntr o l a nd r o lle d o ve r. M ounta in s s lid a nd fe ll, a nd la ke s a nd r iv e rs s p la sh ed a cro ss th e la nd a s th e e arth tu m ble d, a nd fin ally th e e arth fr o ze o ve r in to n oth in g b ut ic e . T his w ent o n fo r y e ars , a nd a gain th e p eople liv e d w it h th e a nts . F in ally S otu kn ang s e nt P oqanghoya a nd P alo ngaw hoya b ack to th e p ole s to r e su m e th e n orm al r o ta tio n o f th e e arth , a nd s o on th e ic e m elt e d a nd lif e r e tu rn ed. S otu kn ang c a lle d th e p eople u p fr o m th eir r e fu ge, a nd h e in tr o duce d th em to th e th ir d w orld th at h e h ad m ade. A gain h e a dm onis h ed th e p eople to r e m em ber th eir C re ato r a s th ey s p re ad a cro ss th e la nd. A s th ey d id s o , t h ey m ult ip lie d q uic kly , e ve n m ore q uic kly th an b efo re , a nd s o on th ey w ere liv in g in la rg e c it ie s a nd d eve lo pin g in to s e para te n atio ns. W it h s o m any p eople a nd s o m any n atio ns, s o on th ere w as w ar, a nd s o m e o f th e n atio ns m ade h uge s h ie ld s o n w hic h th ey c o uld fly , a nd fr o m th ese fly in g s h ie ld s th ey a tta cke d o th er c it ie s. W hen S otu kn ang s a w a ll th is w ar a nd d estr u ctio n, h e r e so lv e d to d estr o y th is w orld q uic kly b efo re it c o rru pte d th e fe w p eople w ho s till r e m em bere d th e C re ato r. H e c a lle d o n S pid er W om an to g ath er th ose fe w a nd, a lo ng th e s h ore , s h e p la ce d e ach p ers o n w it h a lit tle fo od in th e h ollo w s te m o f a r e ed. W hen s h e h ad d one th is , S otu kn ang le t lo ose a flo od th at d estr o ye d th e w arrin g c it ie s a nd th e w orld o n w hic h th ey liv e d. O nce th e r o ckin g o f th e w ave s c e ase d, S pid er W om an u nse ale d th e r e eds s o th e p eople c o uld s e e. T hey flo ate d o n th e w ate r fo r m any d ays, lo okin g fo r la nd, u ntil fin ally th ey d rif te d to a n is la nd. O n th e is la nd th ey b uilt lit tle r e ed b oats a nd s e t s a il a gain to th e e ast. A fte r d rif tin g m any d ays, th ey c a m e to a la rg er is la nd, a nd a fte r m any m ore d ays t o a n e ve n la rg er is la nd. T hey h oped th at th is w ould b e th e fo urth w orld th at S ótu kn ang h ad m ade fo r th em , b ut S pid er W om an a ssu re d th em th at th ey s till h ad a lo ng a nd h ard jo urn ey a head. T hey w alk e d a cro ss th is is la nd a nd b uilt r a fts o n th e fa r s id e, a nd s e t s a il to th e e ast a gain . T hey c a m e to a fo urth a nd s till la rg er is la nd, b ut a gain th ey h ad to c ro ss it o n fo ot a nd th en b uild m ore r a fts to c o ntin ue e ast. F ro m th is is la nd, S pid er W om an s e nt th em o n a lo ne, a nd a fte r m any d ays th ey e nco unte re d a v a st la nd. Its s h ore s w ere s o h ig h th at th ey c o uld n ot fin d a p la ce to l a nd, a nd o nly b y o penin g th e d oors in th eir h eads d id th ey k n ow w here to g o to la nd. W hen th ey fin ally g ot a sh ore , S otu kn ang w as th ere w ait in g fo r th em . A s th ey w atc h ed to th e w est, h e m ade th e i s la nds th at th ey h ad u se d lik e s te ppin g s to nes d is a ppear in to th e s e a. H e w elc o m ed th em to th e fo urth w orld , b ut h e w arn ed th em th at it w as n ot a s b eautif u l a s th e p re vio us o nes, a nd th at lif e h ere w ould b e h ard er, w it h h eat a nd c o ld , a nd ta ll m ounta in s a nd d eep v a lle ys. H e s e nt th em o n th eir w ay to m ig ra te a cro ss th e w ild n ew la nd in s e arc h o f th e h om es fo r th eir r e sp ectiv e c la ns. T he c la ns w ere to m ig ra te a cro ss th e la nd to le arn it s w ays, a lt h ough s o m e g re w w eak a nd s to pped in th e w arm c lim ate s o r r ic h la nds a lo ng th e w ay. T he H opi tr e kke d a nd fa r a nd w id e, a nd w ent th ro ugh th e c o ld a nd ic y c o untr y to th e n orth b efo re fin ally s e ttlin g in th e a rid la nds b etw een th e C olo ra do R iv e r a nd R io G ra nde R iv e r. T hey c h ose th at p la ce s o th at th e h ard sh ip o f th eir lif e w ould a lw ays r e m in d th em o f th eir d ependence o n, a nd lin k to , th eir C re ato r. B ack to th e Ta ble o f C onte nts of Cre atio n S to rie s fr o m a ro und th e W orld . 2/2
1 page essay ( 300-400 words)
T he S ep ara tio n o f H eaven a n d E arth www.g ly .u ga.e d u /r a ils b ack/C S/C SH eave n& Earth .h tm l This M aori s to ry e xp la in in g th e o rg in o f n atu re a nd h um anit y w as c o m pile d b y S ir G eorg e G re y in th e 1 840’s a nd 1 850’s w hen h e w as B rit is h g ove rn or o f N ew Z eala nd. F ace d w it h th e n eed to c o m munic a te w it h M aori tr ib es th en in r e bellio n a gain st B rit is h r u le , G re y c o m pile d th e ta le s to w hic h m any c h ie fs a lu ded in th eir n egotia tio ns w it h h im . G re y’s c o m pila tio n w as p ublis h ed in M aori in 1 854 a nd in E nglis h in 1 855. A ll h um ans a re d esce nded fr o m o ne p air o f a nce sto rs , R angi a nd P apa, w ho a re a ls o c a lle d H eave n a nd E arth . I n th ose d ays, H eave n a nd E arth c lu ng c lo se ly to geth er, a nd a ll w as d ark n ess. R angi a nd P apa h ad s ix s o ns: T a ne- m ahuta , th e fa th er o f th e fo re sts a nd th eir in habit a nts ; T a w hir i- m a-te a, th e fa th er o f w in ds a nd s to rm s; T a ngaro a, th e f a th er o f fis h a nd r e ptile s; T u -m ata uenga, th e fa th er o f fie rc e h um an b ein gs; H aum ia -tik it ik i, th e fa th er o f fo od th at g ro w s w it h out c u lt iv a tio n; a nd R ongo-m a-ta ne, th e fa th er o f c u lt iv a te d fo od. T hese s ix s o ns a nd a ll o th er b ein gs l iv e d in d ark n ess fo r a n e xtr e m ely lo ng tim e, a ble o nly to w onder w hat lig ht a nd v is io n m ig ht b e lik e . F in ally th e s o ns o f H eave n a nd E arth d ecid ed s o m eth in g m ust b e d one. T u -m ata uenga, th e fa th er o f fie rc e h um an b ein gs, u rg ed h is b ro th ers to s la y th eir p are nts . H ow eve r, T a ne-m ahuta , th e fa th er o f th e fo re sts a nd th eir i n habit a nts , a rg ued th at th ey s h ould s e para te th eir p are nts , m akin g R angi th e d is ta nt s ky o ve r th eir h eads a nd P apa t h e e arth c lo se to th em lik e a m oth er. A fte r lo ng d ebate , th e b ro th ers a gre ed to th is p la n, e xce pt fo r T a w hir i- m a-te a, t h e fa th er o f w in ds a nd s to rm s, w ho w as d is tr a ught a t th e id ea o f s e para tin g th eir p are nts . T he o th er b ro th ers n oneth ele ss p ro ce eded w it h th eir p la n. R ongo-m a-ta ne, th e fa th er o f c u lt iv a te d fo od, r o se a nd s tr u ggle d to s e para te h is p are nts , b ut h e c o uld n ot d o it . T a ngaro a, th e fa th er o f fis h a nd r e ptile s, a ls o s tr u ggle d b ut c o uld n ot te ar th em a part. H aum ia -tik it ik i, th e fa th er o f f o od th at g ro w s w it h out c u lt iv a tio n, h ad n o b ette r lu ck a t s e para tin g th eir p are nts . T u -m ata uenga, th e fa th er o f fie rc e h um an b ein gs, lik e w is e fa ile d. T a ne-m ahuta , th e fa th er o f th e fo re sts a nd th eir in habit a nts , s lo w ly r o se u p a nd s tr u ggle d, b ut w it h lit tle s u cce ss. T hen h e p ut h is h ead a gain st th e e arth a nd, w it h h is fe et a gain st th e s kie s, s lo w ly p ush ed th em a part. H is p are nts c rie d o ut in a nguis h , a skin g h ow th eir s o ns c o uld d o th is , b ut T a ne p ush ed a nd p ush ed u ntil th e s ky w as fa r a bove . A s lig ht s p re ad a cro ss th e e arth , th e m ult it u de o f h um ans th at R angi a nd P apa h ad p are nte d w ere r e ve ale d. T a w hir i- m a-te a, th e fa th er o f w in ds a nd s to rm s, w as fu rio us th at h is b ro th ers h ad s o c ru elly s e para te d th eir p are nts a nd th ru st th eir fa th er a w ay. T a w hir i- m a-te a fo llo w ed h is fa th er a nd h id in th e s ky a nd p lo tte d h is r e ve nge. S oon h e s e nt d ow n s to rm s a nd s q ualls a nd fie ry c lo uds a nd h urric a nes to p unis h h is b ro th er T a ne-m ahuta , th e fa th er o f th e fo re sts a nd th eir in habit a nts , b re akin g o ff th e ta ll tr e es a nd le avin g th e fo re sts in s h am ble s. L ik e w is e th e s to rm s s w ept d ow n o n th e o ce ans o f T a ngaro a, th e fa th er o f fis h a nd r e ptile s, a nd p ile d u p w ave s a nd g enera te d g re at w hir lp ools . T a ngaro a, fr ig hte ned b y th e h avo c in o ce ans, d ove d eep to e sca pe T a w hir i- m a-te a’s w ra th . T a ngaro a a bandoned h is tw o g ra nch ild re n, th e fa th er o f th e fis h a nd th e fa th er o f th e r e ptile s. T he fis h a nd r e ptile s w ere le ft n ot k n ow in g w hat to d o, a nd th ey d ebate d h ow to e sca pe th e s to rm . F in ally , th e r e ptile s fle d to th e l a nd a nd h id in th e fo re sts , a nd th e fis h fle d fo r r e fu ge to th e s e a. T a ngaro a, a ngere d a t th e r e ptile s’ d ese rtio n a nd th e f o re sts ‘ w illin gness to r e ce iv e a nd p ro te ct th em , n ow s tr u ggle d w it h T a ne-m ahuta , th e fa th er o f th e fo re sts a nd th eir i n habit a nts , w ho in tu rn fo ught b ack. T hus T a ne p ro vid ed th e c a noes, s p ears , a nd fis h -h ooks fr o m th e tr e es, a nd n ets w ove n fr o m fib ro us p la nts , to c a ptu re th e fis h o f T a ngaro a’s s e as, a nd T a ngaro a’s w ave s a tta cke d th e s h ore s o f t h e fo re sts , w ash in g a w ay th e la nd a nd a ll th e lif e it h old s. T a w hir i- m a-te a, th e g od o f w in ds a nd s to rm s, a ls o la sh ed o ut a t h is b ro th ers H aum ia -tik it ik i, th e fa th er o f fo od t h at g ro w s w it h out c u lt iv a tio n, a nd R ongo-m a-ta ne, th e fa th er o f c u lt iv a te d fo od, fo r th eir r o le in th e s e para tio n o f h is 1/2 p are nts a nd e xile o f h is fa th er. H ow eve r, P apa, th e e arth -m oth er w hom th e b ro th ers h ad ta ke n a s th eir h om e, c la sp ed u p H aum ia -tik it ik i a nd R ongo-m a-ta ne a nd h eld th em c lo se in h er to s a ve th em fr o m T a w hir i- m a-te a’s fu ry . O nly T u -m ata uenga, th e fa th er o f fie rc e h um an b ein gs, w it h sto od T a w hir i- m a-te a’s w ra th a s th e w in ds a nd s to rm s a tta cke d. T u -m ata uenga w as im perv io us, h avin g p la nned th e d eath o f th eir p are nts a nd h avin g b een a bandoned b y h is b ro th ers o n th e E arth . W hen T a w hir i- m a-te a’s g ale s fin ally s u bsid ed, T u -m ata uenga b egan to p la n h is r e ve nge o n h is c o w ard ly a nd w eak b ro th ers . F ir s t h e tu rn ed to T a ne-m ahuta , th e fa th er o f th e fo re sts a nd th eir i n habit a nts , b oth b eca use T a ne h ad a bandoned h im a nd b eca use h e k n ew T a ne’s o ffs p rin g w ere in cre asin g a nd m ig ht u lt im ate ly o ve rw helm T u -m ata uenga’s h um an p ro geny. T a kin g th e le ave s o f th e w hanake tr e e, h e m ade th em i n to s n are s a nd h ung th em in th e fo re sts , w here h e c a ught T a nes’s o ffs p rin g a nd s u bdued th e fo re st. T hen h e to ok o n T a ngaro a, th e fa th er o f th e s e as a nd it s lif e , a nd w it h n ets h e d ra gged T a ngaro a’s c h ild re n fr o m th e s e as. W it h a h oe a nd b aske t h e d ug u p th e c h ild re n o f H aum ia -tik it ik i, th e g od o f fo od th at n eeds n o c u lt iv a tio n, a nd R ongo-m a- t a ne, th e g od o f c u lt iv a te d fo od. H e d ug u p a ll k in ds o f p la nts a nd le ft th em in th e s u n to d ry , to g ain r e ve nge o n th ose t w o b ro th ers . T u -m ata uenga, th e fa th er o f fie rc e h um an b ein gs, th us c o nsu m ed a ll h is fo ur b ro th ers o n E arth , a nd th ey b eca m e h is fo od. O nly o ne b ro th er, T a w hir i- m a-te a, th e g od o f w in ds a nd s to rm s, r e m ain ed u nco nquere d, a nd to th is d ay h is s to rm s a tta ck h um an b ein gs o n b oth la nd a nd s e a in r e ve nge fo r th e r e ndin g o f H eave n a nd E arth . G eorg e G re y, 1 956, Poly n esia n M yth olo gy ( e d. b y W illia m W . B ir d ): C hris tc h urc h , W hit c o m be a nd T o m bs L td ., 2 50 p . ( B L 2 615.G 843p 1 956) B ack to th e Ta ble o f C onte nts of Cre atio n S to rie s fr o m a ro und th e W orld . 2/2
1 page essay ( 300-400 words)
T he O rig in o f J ap an a n d h er P eo ple www.g ly .u ga.e d u /r a ils b ack/C S/C SJa pan.h tm l This s to ry is fr o m th e K ojik i, th e J a panese ” R eco rd o f A ncie nt T hin gs”. T he K ojik i w as c o m pile d in th e 5 00s to 7 00s A .D ., a t th e d ir e ctio n o f v a rio us e m pero rs in te nt o n s ta ndard iz in g a nd p re se rv in g J a pan’s m yth ic h is to ry . T he K ojik i d oes n ot te ll th e s to ry o f th e o rig in o f th e w orld a nd it s p eople s p er s e , b ut it is th e s to ry o f th e o rig in o f J a pan a nd o f J a pan’s a ris to cra tic fa m ilie s. W hen h eave n a nd e arth b egan, th re e d eit ie s c a m e in to b ein g, T he S pir it M aste r o f th e C ente r o f H eave n, T he A ugust W ondro usly P ro ducin g S pir it , a nd th e D iv in e W ondro usly P ro ducin g A nce sto r. T hese th re e w ere in vis ib le . T he e arth w as y o ung th en, a nd la nd flo ate d lik e o il, a nd fr o m it r e ed s h oots s p ro ute d. F ro m th ese r e eds c a m e tw o m ore d eit ie s. A fte r th em , fiv e o r s ix p air s o f d eit ie s c a m e in to b ein g, a nd th e la st o f th ese w ere Iz a nagi a nd Iz a nam i, w hose n am es m ean ” T he M ale W ho In vit e s” a nd ” T he F em ale w ho In vit e s”. T he fir s t fiv e d eit ie s c o m manded Iz a nagi a nd Iz a nam i to m ake a nd s o lid if y th e la nd o f J a pan, a nd th ey g ave th e y o ung p air a je w ele d s p ear. S ta ndin g o n th e F lo atin g B rid ge o f H eave n, th ey d ip ped it in th e o ce an b rin e a nd s tir re d. T hey p ulle d o ut th e s p ear, a nd th e b rin e th at d rip ped o f it fo rm ed a n is la nd to w hic h th ey d esce nded. O n th is is la nd t h ey b uilt a p ala ce fo r th eir w eddin g a nd a g re at c o lu m n to th e h eave ns. Iz a nam i e xa m in ed h er b ody a nd fo und th at o ne p la ce h ad n ot g ro w n, a nd s h e to ld th is to Iz a nagi, w ho r e plie d t h at h is b ody w as w ell- fo rm ed b ut th at o ne p la ce h ad g ro w n to e xce ss. H e p ro pose d th at h e p la ce h is e xce ss in h er p la ce th at w as n ot c o m ple te a nd th at in d oin g s o th ey w ould m ake n ew la nd. T hey a gre ed to w alk a ro und th e p illa r a nd m eet b ehin d it to d o th is . W hen th ey a rriv e b ehin d th e p illa r, s h e g re ete d h im b y s a yin g ” W hat a fin e y o ung m an”, a nd h e r e sp onded b y g re etin g h er w it h ” W hat a fin e y o ung w om an”. T hey p ro cre ate d a nd g ave b ir th to a l e ech -c h ild , w hic h th ey p ut in a b aske t a nd le t flo at a w ay. T hen th ey g ave b ir th to a flo atin g is la nd, w hic h lik e w is e t h ey d id n ot r e co gniz e a s o ne o f th eir c h ild re n. D is a ppoin te d b y th eir fa ilu re s in p ro cre atio n, th ey r e tu rn ed to H eave n a nd c o nsu lt e d th e d eit ie s th ere . T he d eit ie s e xp la in ed th at th e c a use o f th eir d if fic u lt ie s w as th at th e fe m ale h ad s p oke n fir s t w hen th ey m et to p ro cre ate . I z a nagi a nd Iz a nam i r e tu rn ed to th eir is la nd a nd a gain m et b ehin d th e h eave nly p illa r. W hen th ey m et, h e s a id , ” W hat a fin e y o ung w om an,” a nd s h e s a id ” W hat a fin e y o ung m an”. T hey m ate d a nd g ave b ir th to th e e ig ht m ain i s la nds o f J a pan a nd s ix m in or is la nds. T hen th ey g ave b ir th to a v a rie ty o f d eit ie s to in habit th ose is la nds, in clu din g t h e s e a d eit y , th e d eit y o f th e s e a-s tr a it s , a nd th e d eit ie s o f th e r iv e rs , w in ds, tr e es, a nd m ounta in s. L ast, Iz a nam i g ave b ir th to th e fir e d eit y , a nd h er g enit a ls w ere s o b urn ed th at s h e d ie d. Iz a nagi g rie ve d o ve r Iz a nam i, a nd a d eit y w as b orn fr o m h is te ars . D is tr a ught a fte r b ury in g Iz a nam i, h e u se d h is l o ng s w ord to b ehead h is s o n, th e d eit y o f fir e , w hose b ir th h ad k ille d Iz a nam i. F ro m th e b lo od o n th e s w ord c a m e t h re e d eit ie s o f r o cks, tw o d eit ie s o f fir e , a nd o ne o f w ate r, a ll o f w hic h a re n eeded to m ake a s w ord . E ig ht m ore d eit ie s a ro se fr o m th e b ody o f Iz a nagi a nd Iz a nam i’s s la in s o n. Iz a nagi s till lo nged fo r Iz a nam i, a nd h e w ent to th e u nderw orld in s e arc h o f h er. F in din g h er in th e d ark n ess, h e c a lle d to h er a nd a ske d h er to c o m e b ack to th e la nd o f th e liv in g w it h h im . S he p ro m is e d h im th at s h e w ould g o a sk t h e g ods o f th e u nderw orld , b ut s h e b egged h im to n ot lo ok a t h er a s s h e d id s o . S he w as g one lo ng, h ow eve r, a nd e ve ntu ally h e b ro ke o ff th e e nd o f a c o m b in h is h air a nd s e t it a fir e fo r a lig ht. H e fo und h er b ody w it h m aggots c o nsu m in g it , a nd th ese m aggots w ere th e e ig ht d eit ie s o f th under. A sh am ed to b e s e en in th is c o ndit io n, Iz a nam i c h ase d Iz a nagi o ut o f th e u nderw orld . F ir s t s h e s e nt th e th under d eit ie s a fte r h im , a nd th en s h e h ers e lf p urs u ed h im . A t la st h e g ra sp ed a h uge r o ck a nd u se d it to c lo se th e p assa ge to th e u nderw orld . E nra ged, s h e s h oute d to h im th at s h e w ould e ach d ay s tr a ngle o ne th ousa nd p eople o f J a pan. H e r e sp onded th at if s h e d id s o , h e w ould e ach d ay 1/2 c a use fif te en h undre d J a panese p eople to b e b orn . T his is w hy fif te en h undre d c h ild re n a re b orn e ach d ay a nd o ne t h ousa nd p eople d ie e ach d ay. Iz a nagi r e tu rn ed to h is h om e a nd b ath ed to p urif y h im se lf a fte r th is te rrib le e xp erie nce . A s h e d is ro bed, n ew d eit ie s a ro se fr o m h is c lo th in g, a nd m ore a ro se fr o m th e w ate r a s h e b ath ed. T hre e o f th ese w ere a nce sto rs o f J a panese fa m ilie s. T he la st o f th e d eit ie s w as a s o n, S usa -n š-w o, w ho b eca m e th e d eit y o f th e s e a. H e w as e ve ntu ally e xile d to e arth fo r h is b ehavio r in th e h eave ns, b ut h e a nd h is s is te r, th e G oddess o f th e S un, p are nte d e ig ht d eit ie s. A m ong th ese w as th e a nce sto r o f Y am ato fa m ily th at r u le d J a pan, a nd tw o o th ers w ere a nce sto rs o f n in ete en o f it s h ig hest fa m ilie s. W hen th e d eit ie s h ad p acif ie d th e la nd, th e G oddess o f th e S un d is p atc h ed J a pan’s fir s t r u le r fr o m th e h eave ns t o th e e arth . D esce ndin g fr o m th e F lo atin g B rid ge o f H eave n to th e m ounta in to ps, h e b uilt h is p ala ce . E ve ntu ally h e m et a b eautif u l y o ung w om an, P rin ce ss B rillia nt B lo sso m s, a nd a ske d h er to m arry h im . S he d efe rre d to h er fa th er’s j u dgm ent, a nd h er fa th er g ave h im b oth P rin ce ss B rillia nt B lo sso m s a nd h er o ld er s is te r, P rin ce ss L ong a s th e R ocks. T he n ew e m pero r r e fu se d th e o ld er s is te r, h ow eve r, b eca use o f h er u glin ess. W hen th e fa th er h eard th is , h e e xp la in ed th at h e h ad o ffe re d P rin ce ss L ong a s th e R ocks b eca use h er c h ild re n w ould h ave liv e d e te rn ally . In ste ad, t h e c h ild re n o f P rin ce ss B rillia nt B lo sso m s w ere m orta l, w hic h is w hy th e e m pero rs h ave n eve r h ad lo ng liv e s. P rin ce ss B rillia nt B lo sso m s w as s o on w it h c h ild , s o s o on th at th e e m pero r c o uld h ard ly b elie ve th at s h e b ore h is c h ild re n. T o p ro ve h ers e lf , s h e b uilt a p ala ce a nd s h ut h ers e lf in it a nd s e t fir e to it , k n ow in g a s h e d id th at th e c h ild re n o f a nyo ne b ut th e e m pero r c o uld n ot s u rv iv e th e fla m es. A m id st th e fla m es s h e g ave b ir th to th re e d eit ie s, a nd u lt im ate ly th eir d esce ndants w ere th e im peria l fa m ily o f J a pan. D onald L . P hilip pi, tr a ns., 1 969, K ojik i: P rin ce to n, P rin ce to n U niv e rs it y P re ss, 6 55 p ., a nd Jo se ph M . C am pbell, 1 962, T he M asks o f G od: O rie nta l M yth olo gy: N ew Y ork , V ik in g P re ss, 5 61 p . B ack to th e Ta ble o f C onte nts of Cre atio n S to rie s fr o m a ro und th e W orld . 2/2
1 page essay ( 300-400 words)
T he E lo him www.g ly .u ga.e d u /r a ils b ack/C S/C SElo him .h tm l This , th e s e co nd o f o ur tw o H ebre w c re atio n s to rie s, is fr o m G enesis 1 :1 to 2 :3 . It th us a ppears fir s t in th e H ebre w B ib le ‘s B ook o f G enesis , b ut it is a ctu ally th e y o unger o f th e tw o s to rie s p re se nte d th ere . A c o nsid era ble b ody o f s ch ola rs h ip o ve r th e la st tw o o r th re e c e ntu rie s h as c o nclu ded th at th is s to ry w as w rit te n in a bout th e s ix th c e ntu ry B .C .. T hat w as a fte r Is ra el w as c o nquere d b y th e A ssyria ns in 7 22 B .C . a nd a t a tim e w hen th e H ebre w s w ere fa ce d w it h e xile in B abylo n. T he a uth or o f th is la te r s to ry is k n ow n to s ch ola rs a s ” P “, b eca use h e o r s h e w ro te fr o m a m uch m ore ” p rie stly ” p ers p ectiv e th an J , th e a uth or o f th e c h ro nolo gic a lly e arlie r s to ry th at a ppears in G enesis 2 :4 to 3 :2 4 ( s e e ” Y ahw eh”, a bove ). P ‘s s to ry is o ne o f c re atio n e x n ih ilo ( fr o m n oth in g), a nd th e c re atio n is a m uch m ore s ta te ly p ro ce ss th an t h at in J ‘s s to ry . B eca use o f th e tim in g o f it s w rit in g a nd th e g ra ndeur o f it s la nguage, P ‘s s to ry h as b een in te rp re te d b y s ch ola rs ” a s a n o rig in s to ry c re ate d fo r th e b enefit o f a lo st n atio n in th e n eed o f e nco ura gem ent a nd a ffir m atio n” ( L eem in g a nd L eem in g 1 994, p . 1 1 3). In fa ct, s o m e s ch ola rs h ave s u ggeste d th at P ‘s s to ry w as a ctu ally w rit te n in B abylo n. P u se d th e n am e ” E lo him ” fo r th e c re ato r, a nd th at u sa ge is c o ntin ued in th e p ara phra se b elo w . ” E lo him ” ( , p ro nounce d ” e lo H EEM “) is a ctu ally a p lu ra l w ord p erh aps b est tr a nsla te d a s ” th e p ow erfu l o nes”. P a ls o u se d p lu ra l p hra sin g in th e E lo him ‘s c re atio n o f h um ankin d ” a fte r o ur o w n lik e ness”. S ch ola rs h ave s u ggeste d th at th e u se o f th e p lu ra l ” E lo him ” r a th er th an th e s in gula r ” E lo ha” m ay h eark e n b ack to p oly th eis tic r o ots o f M id dle E aste rn r e lig io ns a nd w as a w ay to e m phasiz e th e m agnit u de o f th e d eit y in q uestio n. P ‘s fir s t p eople h ave n o n am es a t a ll, i n k e epin g w it h th e s to ry ‘s fo cu s o n th e g ra ndeur o f th e c re ato r r a th er th an o n th e c re ate d. In th e b egin nin g th e E lo him m ade th e s ky a nd th e e arth , b ut th e e arth w as s h apele ss a nd e ve ry th in g w as d ark . T he E lo him s a id ” L et th ere b e lig ht,” a nd th ere w as th e lig ht th at m ade d ay d if fe re nt fr o m n ig ht. A nd th at w as th e fir s t d ay. T he E lo him s a id , ” L et th ere b e a d om e to s e para te th e h eave ns fr o m th e w ate rs b elo w ,” a nd th ere w ere th e h eave ns. A nd th at w as th e s e co nd d ay. T he E lo him s a id , ” L et th e w ate rs o f th e e arth g ath er s o th at th ere a re s e as a nd th ere is d ry la nd,” a nd s o it w as. T he E lo him s a id , ” L et th ere b e v e geta tio n o n th e la nd, w it h p la nts to y ie ld s e eds a nd fr u it s ,” a nd s o it w as. A nd th at w as th e th ir d d ay. T he E lo him s a id , ” L et th ere b e lig ht in th e h eave ns, a nd le t th em c h ange w it h th e s e aso ns,” a nd s o th ere w ere s ta rs . T hen th e E lo him m ade a s u n a nd a m oon to r u le o ve r th e d ay a nd to r u le o ve r th e n ig ht. A nd th at w as th e f o urth d ay. T he E lo him s a id , ” L et th ere b e c re atu re s in th e w ate rs , a nd le t th ere b e b ir d s in th e s kie s,” a nd s o th ere w ere s e a m onste rs a nd s e a c re atu re s a nd b ir d s. T he E lo him b le sse d th em , s a yin g ” B e fr u it fu l a nd m ult ip ly “. A nd th at w as t h e fif th d ay. T he E lo him s a id , ” L et th e e arth h ave a nim als o f v a rio us k in ds”, a nd s o it w as. T hen th e E lo him s a id , ” L et u s m ake h um ans a fte r o ur o w n lik e ness, a nd le t th em r u le o ve r th e fis h o f th e s e a, o ve r th e b ir d s o f th e a ir , o ve r th e c a ttle a nd c re epin g th in gs o f th e la nd, a nd o ve r a ll th e e arth .” T he E lo him s a id to th ese h um ans, ” B e fr u it fu l a nd m ult ip ly , a nd fill th e e arth a nd s u bdue it , r u lin g o ve r th e fis h a nd th e b ir d s a nd th e a nim als o f th e la nd. W e h ave g iv e n y o u e ve ry p la nt a nd tr e e y ie ld in g s e ed. T o e ve ry b east a nd b ir d o f th e E arth w e h ave g iv e n e ve ry g re en p la nt fo r f o od.” A nd th at w as th e s ix th d ay. 1/2 A nd o n th e s e ve nth d ay th e m akin g o f th e h eave ns a nd e arth w as fin is h ed, a nd th e E lo him r e ste d. S ourc e s fo r ” T he E lo him ” a nd ” Y ahw eh”: N orm an C . H abel, 1 971, Lit e ra ry C rit ic is m o f th e B ib le : P hila delp hia , F ortr e ss P re ss, 8 6 p . ( B S 1 225.2 .H 3) D avid A dam s L eem in g a nd M arg are t A dam s L eem in g, 1 994, Encyclo pedia o f C re atio n M yth s: S anta B arb ara , A BC – C LIO , 3 30 p . ( B L 3 25.C 7 L 44 1 994) J o hn L aw re nce M acK enzie , 1 966, ” P enta te uch ” a nd ” A dam a nd E ve ” in Encyclo pedia B rit a nnic a : C hic a go, E ncyclo pedia B rit a nnic a In c. H erb ert G . M ay, e dit o r, The N ew O xfo rd A nnota te d B ib le : N ew Y ork , O xfo rd U niv e rs it y P re ss, 1 564 p . D agobert D . R unes, 1 959, Concis e D ic tio nary o f J u dais m : N ew Y ork , P hilo so phic a l L ib ra ry In c., 2 37 p . ( B M 5 0.R 941c) A .M . S ilb erm ann, tr a nsla to r, 5 745 [1 985], Chum ash , w it h T a rg um O nke lo s, H aphta ro th , a nd R ash i’s C om menta ry , V ol. 1 : J e ru sa le m , T he S ilb erm ann F am ily , 2 81 + 2 9 p . ( B S 1 221 1 985 v .1 ) J u liu s W ellh ause n, 1 899, Die C om posit io n d es H exa te uch s u nd d er h is to ris ch en B uch er d es A lt e n T e sta m ents : B erlin , G . R eim er, 3 73 p . ( B S 1 215.W 4 1 899) A m uch m ore e xte nsiv e b ib lio gra phy is a va ila ble a t h ttp ://h ope.e du/a ca dem ic /r e lig io n/b andstr a /R TO T/C H1/C H1_B G .H TM #C 1 O th er w eb p ages o f in te re st in clu de h ttp ://w ww.h ig hfib er. c o m /~ dfb eck/C ESE/V ie w poin t/c o ntr ib utio ns/b ib le /a uth ors h ip .h tm l h ttp ://w ww.h ig hfib er. c o m /~ dfb eck/C ESE/V ie w poin t/c o ntr ib utio ns/b ib le /C REAT IO NSTO RIE S.h tm l h ttp ://fr e edom la w .c o m /to ra hw eb.h tm h ttp ://w ww.n ew berry .e du/a ca d/p hil/ r 1 1 0/L 03.h tm ( a nd s u cce edin g le sso ns a s w ell) h ttp ://p atr io t.n et/~ je b/d och yp .h tm h ttp ://w ww.e b.c o m :1 80/c g i- b in /g ?D ocF =m ic ro /7 25/5 6.h tm l h ttp ://w ww.e b.c o m :1 80/c g i- b in /g ?D ocF =m ic ro /3 79/8 7.h tm l B ack to th e Ta ble o f C onte nts of Cre atio n S to rie s fr o m a ro und th e W orld . 2/2

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