Our Central Question: Does the scientific evidence suggest that hypnosis is effective? If yes, for which conditions is it most effective? .
Additional Questions for Consideration (optional):
What sorts of conditions have typically been treated with hypnosis historically?
Is there a sound basis for the use of forensic hypnosis?
Could hypnosis ever be used to cause a person to commit a crime?
The paper MUST follow APA format. No abstract is necessary. Your submission should include:
A Title Page with an original, descriptive title, your name, and your affiliation.
One to three paragraphs constituting your general introduction, hook, and any basic, essential background info. No heading is used for this section; just begin writing at the top of page 2. End this section by stating the purpose of your literature review.
A Literature Review section. This will form the majority of your paper. Label it with a heading marked ‘Literature Review’ and feel free to add subheadings to help keep the material organized. You must discuss and cite at least six peer-reviewed journal articles in this section. Draw from your annotated bibliography, but avoid the tendency to simply list separate articles; try to tell the reader a coherent story as you discuss the evidence.
A Discussion and Conclusion section. Return to the questions we began with about hypnosis and attempt to answer them:
A References section:
This must include complete APA-style references for all your cited sources in alphabetical order. Sources must include the minimum six journal articles and any other sources you made use of in your paper.
Instructions Our Central Question: Does the scientific evidence suggest that hypnosis is effective? If yes, for which conditions is it most effective? . Additional Questions for Consideration (optio
RUNNING HEAD: Facebook Use and Teen Mental Health 11 Understanding the Relationship Between Facebook Use and Teen Mental Health [PSYC 200 Student] University of Baltimore The years of a teenager are critical in the direct development of a healthy adulthood. In this day in age, there are many stressors that teens have to face, often times virtually on their own, with little to no aid, such as social anxiety, the need to feel accepted, and even their own existence, or lack thereof. All throughout their years, teens will be searching for catharsis to fill this lack of self, and the advent of social networking sites (SNSs) like Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, and Instagram act as a panacea for said woes. For years, teens and young adults flock to these sites, pouring tons of information onto them, both private and public, with little to no caution. These sites, at the end of the day, fill up a teen’s time, especially those yearning for their own identity, and have ingratiated themselves into daily life, for better and for worse. For this demographic, SNSs are far too important to simply throw away at the site of danger. They allow teens who are socially anxious to communicate anonymously, giving them a confidence boost in themselves, as no face means no labels are attached to them for users elsewhere to criticize and mock. They allow teens to create a diary of sorts, where they can post updates, work, hobbies, or other things they like, provided they meet the safety standards outlined in the sites’ user agreements, such as no hate speech or no pornography that’s not labeled as “Not Safe for Work” (NSFW). Most importantly, SNSs allow users to communicate globally, allowing people to react and post comments about particular subjects, and for every click of the “Like” button is another boost to a young teen’s or young adult’s self-satisfaction. It’s little wonder then that, in spite of threats such as SNS addiction, cyberbullying, and hackings, teens to this day still freely and often times carelessly utilize these sites without a care in the world, and this lack of moderation is but one of the actions that ultimately lead to the rise of the negative effects of SNSs on teens. The purpose of this literature review is to discuss both the positive and negative implications of the use of SNSs by teens and young adults. It will talk about the subjects of identity formation, cyberbullying, social media addiction, and the overall effects social media has placed on today’s population. By the review’s end, the reader should have an understanding of how and why cyberbullying occurs, what the dangers and benefits mean for the youth, and most importantly, understand why SNSs are here to stay in our lives. Literature Review There is no doubt that the use of social networking sites (SNS) has only been increasing. By 2018, Facebook, according to usage statistics from Statistica.com, still remains the leading SNS in the world, capping at about 166 million active users, with Instagram in second (about 114 million) and Messenger, Facebook’s complementary texting app, in third (about 105 million). Many of these users are teens who await to post some sort of update or some interesting finding that came across them in the day. A few positive reactions later, and it becomes easy to see why Facebook and other similar sites are so popular. They provide brief, concise, sometimes anonymous means of communicating to a vast array of people from both near and far, however, this seemingly miraculous means of communication comes with a sometimes steep price. As these sites gain traction among teens, so too does their necessity in daily life. They become a means for teens to stay informed of the outside world, in a fast paced time, where news is consumed no different from a bag of chips. In a study performed by Graham (2018), there was a somewhat negative relationship between the fear of missing out (FoMo) and life contentment, with results showing that teens who spend their days frantically searching for news on their social media timeline have a lower level of life contentment than those that do not check as often. The study also peered into the negative emotions when teens do not fulfill this urge, showing issues such as increased irritability, moodiness, increased social anxiety, and depression, among others. Ultimately, these feelings come back to hurt teens, many of whom do not even use sites like Twitter to connect with friends and other individuals from real life, but instead, as a means to prevent feeling isolated, which only fuels the negative emotions in the long run. The heavy use of and reliance on social media by teens and young adults has made others wary about their overall health, and judging by recent evidence, it seems such concerns are justified. Judging from an experience sampling done by Kross et al. (2013) to determine how participants felt by the moment and their life contentedness, researchers found negative shifts in both categories, indicating that Facebook-their studied social network-might very well be undermining overall health as use continues. The study found that after merely two weeks, levels of life contentedness dropped within the 82 participants, many of whom reported feelings of loneliness and other isolating behaviors. This conclusion is supported by a cross-sectional study done by Meena, Mittal, and Solanki (2013), who, after conducting a study on 200 urban students to see whether or not social networks were being excessively used by teens and young adults, found that 25% of students had occasional problems while using social media, that is, they spent quite a bit of time merely searching on or simply running social networking sites, with more than 50% of students having used said sites for more than three years. Indeed, social media has garnered heavy use in but a span of about a decade, and by these reports, it seems to have way more adverse effects than simply directly speaking to others the old fashioned way. With all this talk of loneliness, anxiety, and need to belong being heavily looked at in the relationship between social media use and teen health, what better way to go down the rabbit hole than to look at the worst case scenario linked to social networks?: teen suicide. As platforms like Facebook and Twitter continue to soar, so has its use to spread awareness to the growing dilemma of cyberbullying and ultimately suicide. An article published on the Tampa Bay Times recounts the suicide of Naika Venant, a 14 year old girl who committed suicide on Facebook Live, after being tossed from foster home to foster home, and being bullied, abandoned assaulted, and abused by her mother, who also went on the broadcast and encouraged her suicide (O’Donnell, 2017). This inhumane behavior seems to be all too common nowadays, as a study by Luxton, June, and Fairall (2012) examined just how prevalent cyberbullicide-suicides caused by cyberbullying, either by text, e-mail, or more often than not, SNSs like Instagram and MySpace-really is. Results from a survey given to approximately 2000 middle school children showed that victims of cyberbullying were almost twice as likely to attempt suicide than those who were not, and cyberbullying offenders were 1.5 times as likely to report having attempted suicide than children who were not offenders or victims of cyberbullying. We often talk about how these victims likely felt lonely or isolated prior to these attacks, yet few talk about the perpetrators’ emotions, unlike this study. After all, the often used saying, “misery loves company” would work very well in these scenarios. The offenders also likely felt lonely or isolated, or perhaps they were the “cool kid” and belittling others is how they built said reputation, thus creating peer pressure for them to continue disparage others. While it certainly is inexcusable for bullying of any kind to take place, it should not be looked at as a simple case of “hero vs. villain” we often ascribe to criminal cases like this. Cyberbullying and cyberbullicide is an epidemic, and like any epidemic, must be looked at with dire scrutiny, and with the earnest desire to lessen its prevalence, if not outright banish it from our lives altogether. Without the proper examination and means to eliminate it, such fates as that young girl will continue to be as common as breathing, an action fewer and fewer youths seem to be doing as this continues with little to no hope of stopping. Now while the use of social media may seem completely dangerous for teens and young adults, not all is wrong , and in fact, there are a few positives social media has to offer, aside from a quick means of communication. As observed in a study by Drogos (2015), SNSs have given these folks a place where they feel they can freely express themselves, and create a name for themselves, an important feeling that must be explored by this demographic. There were two studies: Study 1 surveyed 227 teens that investigated how self-reported Facebook use related to self-concept, and Study 2 was a content analysis of actual Facebook profile of 204 of Study 1’s participants, as they observe and analyze Facebook behavior patterns. As per the results, both studies showed that adolescents who used Facebook more often, particularly those that actively use it more than other sites, have a more advanced identity than those who use it less often, consistent with the idea that it allows these individuals an effective space to work out their identities. In addition, Study 1 found that the relationship between time spent on Facebook and identity status was moderated by offline parent-teen communication, with more supportive parenting equating to stronger relationships with people. Most obvious in the findings was that the more positive reactions given to participants’ status, the higher their self-esteem. Ultimately, the research shows that teens simply need a safe, secure place to voice their opinions and find a place to form their identity, so that when they finally face the real world in but a few years time as adults, they will have a better understanding of who they are, if they are who they claim to be, and understand their desires and aspirations they wish to see realized in life. All in all, SNSs are here to stay, and for better or worse, we need to stay informed about their use and what risks and benefits they pose for us. While they may harbor a place for us to belong, ease social anxiety, and allow us to connect with others, it’s also worth noting that these small benefits do little against the dangers they produce or enhance, such as cyberbullying, cyberbullicide, and the manipulation of our psychosocial health. As the days drone on, the world is becoming more interconnected, however, this means nothing since in effect, we cannot effectively communicate in person, let alone on the web, where potentially the entire world can freely observe and judge our words, thoughts, ideals, and identity. If we wish to make social media a safer place to traverse for the youth, we need to address these issues, but more than that, we need to combat them. Teens need to place cyberdefenses like firewalls and virtual private networks (VPSs) to block unwanted trespassers from hacking their profiles, and spreading hateful speech to them and others. We need to actually talk about and actively detect and treat bullying, not just online, but where it really starts: in person, at schools across the nation, and in the world. By the time that’s settled, teens can finally fit pieces of their puzzle, without the fear someone will swat way their progress and perhaps even their lives. Discussion and Conclusion References Allen, K.-A., Ryan, T., Gray, D., McInereney, D., & Waters, L. (2014). Social Media Use and Social Connectedness in Adolescents: The Positives and the Potential Pitfalls. Australian Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 31, 18–31. https://doi.org/10.1017/edp.2014.2 Drogos, K. L. (2016). The relationship between adolescent identity formation and social network site use. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Retrieved April 22, 2019, from ProQuest website: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1815114419/abstract/167885EEB92A4039PQ/1 Graham, L. H. (2018). Is Fear of Missing Out Instrumental in Understanding Health Outcomes Related to Social Media Use? American Journal of Medical Research, 5(1), 67–72. https://doi.org/10.22381/AJMR5120185 Kross, E., Verduyn, P., Demiralp, E., Park, J., Lee, D. S., Lin, N., … Ybarra, O. (2013). Facebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults. PLOS ONE, 8(8), e69841. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069841 Luxton, D. D., June, J. D., & Fairall, J. M. (2012). Social Media and Suicide: A Public Health Perspective. American Journal of Public Health, 102(Suppl 2), S195–S200. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2011.300608 Meena, P. S., Mittal, P. K., & Solanki, R. K. (2012). Problematic use of social networking sites among urban school going teenagers. Industrial Psychiatry Journal, 21(2), 94. https://doi.org/10.4103/0972-6748.119589 O’Donnell, C. (2017, March 14). DCF: MOM MAY HAVE VIEWED TEEN’S SUICIDE; A report says she left a harmful comment during the livestream of the girl’s hanging. Tampa Bay Times (St. Petersburg, FL), p. 1. Retrieved from Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Rothchild, N. (2018). Is Troublesome Facebook Use a Behavioral Addiction? American Journal of Medical Research, 5(1), 73–78.https://doi.org/10.22381/AJMR5120186 Top U.S. mobile social apps by users 2018 | Statistic. (n.d.). Retrieved April 22, 2019, from Statista website: https://www.statista.com/statistics/248074/most-popular-us-social-networking-apps-ranked-by-audience/
Instructions Our Central Question: Does the scientific evidence suggest that hypnosis is effective? If yes, for which conditions is it most effective? . Additional Questions for Consideration (optio
Benefits and Drawbacks Running Head: Benefits and Drawbacks The Benefits and Drawbacks of Hypnosis University of Baltimore While we have all heard stories of hypnosis or seen it portrayed on television, and in movies, not many of us have participated in any type of clinical hypnosis treatments or studies. It is this reason that society has questions on the efficacy of hypnosis and the clinicians who perform these treatments. Although hypnosis has been utilized in some form since the 18th century there are still looming concerns around whether it causes more harm than good. And whether it can be weaponized against a person. Hypnosis is defined as “a state of consciousness characterized by an improved ability for responding to suggestions and including deep concentration and diminished peripheral awareness” (Fisch et al, 2020). The objective of this literature review is to identify how hypnosis has been used as a treatment for a variety of conditions from anxiety to addiction, while pointing out which conditions hypnosis was most effective in treating and which uses bring questions. Literature Review The main component of hypnosis treatment is relaxation, in all forms of hypnotherapy which is the use of hypnosis as a treatment of medical and mental illnesses, the person’s ability to relax and concentrate makes up the foundation of the process being successful. In the pilot study performed by Duff et al. (2005) the question being addressed was whether patients who might benefit from improvements in quality of life have the cognitive and brain ability to be hypnotized. This study focused on the use of hypnosis to improve the quality of life for patients with dementia, it illustrated that when compared to patients getting conventional care that hypnosis produces bigger changes in reported quality of life and reduces anxiety and sadness in terminally ill patients (Duff et al. 2005). When used along with other forms of intervention like cognitive behavioral therapy, it improved the efficacy of the initial treatment and has a direct influence on the patient’s quality of life. This study did not claim that with hypnosis treatment dementia can be cured, but the fact that it has demonstrable outcomes in improving quality of life implies that there is a “subjectively cognitive component” (Duff et al, 2005) to behavior change in dementia, in addition to the changes caused by dementia itself. This cognitive component can be seen in several other conditions treated with hypnosis, it includes the ability to be open to suggestions and allow yourself to be guided by these suggestions. As with many treatments and medicines used to help patients get better, there can be side effects that arise after a patient’s exposure to hypnotherapy. One of these issues made it all the way into the courtroom, we see this in the study performed by Wagstaff (2006) in which a plaintiff accused his clinician of causing him to suffer from schizophrenia after being hypnotized. The prosecution’s case was based on the crucial premise that hypnosis includes certain neurological changes that, if not handled appropriately, can make some participants in hypnosis especially vulnerable to harm (Wagstaff, 2006). The prosecution also blamed the clinician’s failure to properly dehypnotize the plaintiff, which they recognized could leave someone stuck in a psychotic state. Research shows that it is not necessary to dehypnotize someone after hypnotism and further states that the process known as “self-hypnosis” would not be viable if one had to receive instructions from a hypnotist to end a hypnosis session and reverse recommendations (Wagstaff, 2006). Reports of major psychiatric disorders following any type of hypnosis are exceedingly rare, it is people who place their trust in bad therapists, insensitive stage show hosts, or unethical research psychologists that run the risk of being degraded, humiliated, and experiencing distress after being hypnotized. As written in the prior article, dehypnotizing a patient is not necessary, but if this is true how can hypnotism be used to help a person end an addictive behavior? I would like to put forth the argument that stress could be the cause of addictive behavior and by reducing the stress through hypnosis, it heightens the patient’s ability to focus on treatment and not relapse. This connection was shown in the study by Carmody et al. (2007) where hypnosis or behavioral counseling was combined with nicotine patches to assist in the smoking cessation of 286 smokers. “The results showed that hypnosis produced considerably higher validated point-prevalence quit rates than conventional therapy among individuals with a history of depression at 6 and 12 months” (Carmody et al, 2007). Patients who smoked cigarettes as well as suffering from depression had better outcomes than those who didn’t suffer from depression, this goes to my notion that if hypnosis causes a reduction in stress, it can leave a person more susceptible to recovery. While hypnosis interventions had been shown effective in smoking cessation, at the time this article was published clinical practice recommendations for quitting smoking did not list hypnosis as an evidence-based strategy due to lack of sufficient data. Carmody et al. (2007) There seems to be no guarantee of hypnosis’ effectiveness in treating any condition that I have identified so far, but each study does provide information showing that the use of hypnotherapy can improve a person’s quality of life. This trend is also seen in a pilot study done by Jensen et al. (2018) looking at the efficacy of hypnosis being enhanced by pairing it with mindful meditation and neurofeedback. This study included people suffering from multiple sclerosis with symptoms of chronic pain and fatigue or both. Mindful meditation is a particular type of meditation that teaches the mind to notice experiences (such as thoughts, emotions, noises, and body sensations, including but not limited to pain) in a way that is open, accepting, and free from judgement (Jensen et al. 2018). In neurofeedback, data is collected from EEG results that identify brain activity indicators linked with good reactions to hypnosis treatment, then intervention is given that impacts those indicators before starting the hypnosis session. The results showed that both interventions enhanced the benefits of hypnosis treatment, I would suggest this is because both mindful meditation and neurofeedback put the person in a state of mind to concentrate and focus on relaxation. When we think of needing to relax, what we are trying to do is reduce the stress in our bodies, stress brought on from varying conditions for varying reasons. The use hypnosis as a stress-reduction technique would seem obvious due the physiological impact and relaxation responses connected with the hypnotic trance. These responses included decreased heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and increased muscle relaxation, and immunity activity (Fisch et al. 2020). These results are reported in Fisch’s article where the goal of the study was to create a therapy group program for stress relief, while assessing its practicality, and evaluating the effectiveness of the program before and after treatment. My belief is hypnosis has a great impact on stress by calming the body, leading me to believe it’s the relaxation state a person is placed in during hypnosis that causes the body to lessen pain intensity and decrease stress. The final article of this review looks at the relationship between a patient and therapist and if it is a factor that produces the placebo effect in hypnosis treatment. This research emphasizes the advantages of hypnosis therapy, it specifically diminishes “somatosensory amplification”, which is one of the psychological elements of pain that most affects its experience, however this effect was less noticeable when hypnosis was provided by a therapist (Ciaramella, 2022). There is known connection between relaxation and its effect on the distress-pain response in the body as I’ve stated earlier but this study showed how a therapist can cause a placebo effect in patience when given face to face therapy sessions. Discussion and Conclusion References Ciaramella, A. (2022). Placebo and hypnosis in the clinical setting: Contextual factors in hypnotic analgesia. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 64(3), 223–238. https://doi- org.proxy-ub.researchport.umd.edu/10.1080/00029157.2021.1954872 Carmody, T. P., Duncan, C. L., Solkowitz, S. N., Huggins, J., & Simon, J. A. (2017). Hypnosis for smoking relapse prevention: A randomized trial. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 60(2), 159–171. https://doi-org.proxy-ub.researchport.umd.edu/10.1080/00029157.2016.1261678 Duff, S. C., & Nightingale, D. J. (2005). The efficacy of hypnosis in changing the quality of life in patients with dementia: A pilot-study evaluation . European Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 20-29. Fisch, S. B., Roll, S., Cree, M., Brinkhaus, B., & Teut, M. (2020). Group Hypnosis for Stress Reduction – A Feasiblity Study. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1-18. Jensen, M. P., Battalio, S. L., Chan, J. F., Edwards, K. A., Day, M. A., Sherlin, L. H., & Ehde, D M. (2018). USE OF NEUROFEEDBACK AND MINDFULNESS TO ENHANCE RESPONSE TO HYPNOSIS TREATMENT IN INDIVIDUALS WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: Results From a Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial. International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis, 66(3), 231–264. https://doi-org.proxy-ub.researchport.umd.edu/10.1080/00207144.2018.1460546 Wagstaff, G. F. (2000). Can hypnosis cause madness? Contemporary Hypnosis, 17(3), 97–11 https://doi-org.proxy-ub.researchport.umd.edu/10.1002/ch.198