This paper must be 4 pages and have only 7 references and one of them has to be a book reference on the reference list. Ignore the page that says Prospectus Initial Guide Expectations and Rubric please. It has to be in APA style 7 format.
Follow the scanned document as a guideline.
Use this site when you selected only one chapter in this book: https://ecnhts-proxy.jsums.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=1226067&site=ehost-live&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_Cover
This paper must be 4 pages and have only 7 references and one of them has to be a book reference on the reference list. Ignore the page that says Prospectus Initial Guide Expectations and Rubric pleas
WIG 2: Writing Style Expectations and Rubric Objectives: 1. Demonstrate the ability to successfully write an introductory paragraph on a chosen topic utilizing an academic writing style. 2. Demonstrate ability to write clearly, concisely, objectively, and with an organized presentation of ideas. 3. Demonstrate use of active writing style and power verbs. 4. Demonstrate ability to avoid colloquialisms, bias, anthropomorphism, and pejorative labels. Procedure: 1. Write a one paragraph introduction to your developing manuscript (at least five sentences in length) that broadly introduces your topic to the reader. 2. Do not include in-text citations of references (this will happen in WIG 30. 3. The following words may not be used anywhere in the paragraph: is, are, were, was, has, had, have, having, be, being, been. 4. Utilize at least 2 “power verbs” from the example lists provided on Moodie. 5. Do not start any sentences with “It” or “There”. 6. No sentences may utilize passive voice. 7. No colloquialisms, anthropomorphism, or pejorative labels may be used. 8. Presentation of ideas is objective and unbiased. WIG 2 will be evaluated using the following rubric: Below Expectations (Unsatisfactory) Meets Expectations (Satisfactory) Any of the following: • Ideas are not presented logically • Writing style is unclear and wordy • Fails to utilize 2 or more “power verbs” • Utilizes any of the following words: is, are, were, was, has, had, have, having, be, being, been • One or more sentences written in passive voice • Utilizes colloquial terms, anthropomorphism, or pejorative labels • Tone is editorial and biased • • • • • • • • Overall the paragraph appears very well written Ideas are presented logically Writing style is clear and concise Utilizes 2 or more “power verbs” Does not utilize the words: is, are, were, was, has, had, have, having, be, being, been All sentences written in active voice No colloquial terms, anthropomorphism, or pejorative labels used Tone is objective and unbiased COUN 8802 • Randall Astramovich, Ph.D. • Department of Counseling, Idaho State University Page 5 of 9 WIG 3: APA 7 th ed. Style Expectations and Rubric Objectives: 1. Demonstrate the ability to successfully format a manuscript in APA 7 th ed. style. 2. Demonstrate ability to utilize in text citations appropriately. 3. Demonstrate ability to compile a reference list according to APA 7 th ed. style. Procedure: 1. Building off of the introductory paragraph you wrote for WIG 2, write the next paragraph to follow it. You will have two fully written paragraphs. 2. Format a Word document for an APA 7 th edition style manuscript including a title page, the first two paragraphs of your text (remember to put your manuscript title at the top of the first page of text), and a reference list. No abstract page is needed for this assignment. 3. Within your two written paragraphs, provide appropriate citations as follows: a. Utilize at least one citation that begins a sentence. “Harris and Smythe (2019) suggested…. b. Utilize at least two citations that are cited using parentheses within a sentence. ” no differences in counseling supervision styles (Harris & Smythe, 2019).” “…found high levels of confidence (Harris & Smythe, 2019), while other researchers found no differences (Mark, 2016).” c. Have at least one sentence where two or more citations are used within a single set of parentheses. “…..no differences in counseling supervision styles (Harris & Smythe, 2019; Mark, 2016).” 4. Reference list must include at least five references total, with at least one journal article, at least one book, and at least one book chapter. 5. Pay attention to: a. Running head b. Page number location c. Be sure all references listed on reference page are included in the body of the text. d. Be sure all references in the body of the text are listed on the reference page. e. Use of doi URLs for journal articles f. References listed alphabetically COUN 8802 • Randall Astramovich, Ph.D. • Department of Counseling, Idaho State University Page 6 of 9 WIG 3 will be evaluated using the following rubric: Below Expectations (Unsatisfactory) Meets Expectations (Satisfactory) Any of the following: • Overall the manuscript contains several APA 7 th edition style errors. • Does not include two paragraphs of text. • Does not include at least five references, with at least one journal article, one book chapter, and one book. • Does not include all in- text citations as listed in Procedures #3. • DOI URLs are not included for journal articles. • • • • • Overall the manuscript is formatted accurately in APA 7 th edition style. Includes two paragraphs of text. At least five references are included, with at least one journal article, one book chapter, and one book. Includes in-text citations as listed in Procedures #3. DOI URLs are included for all journal articles. COUN 8802 • Randall Astramovich, Ph.D. • Department of Counseling, Idaho State University Page 7 of 9 WIG 4: Journal Article Introduction Expectations and Rubric (Assesses CACREP Doctoral Standards 4.g.h) Objectives: 1. Conceptualize and write the introductory 2-3 pages of a theoretical/conceptual/practice- based counseling article appropriate for publication in a peer-reviewed counseling venue. 2. Develop skills in academic writing and in the appropriate use of APA 7 1h edition style. 3. Develop confidence in navigating the academic publishing process. Procedure: 1. Write the introductory pages of a journal article manuscript (about 2-3 pages of text plus a title page, abstract, and references section). 2. Identify potential publication venues and a timeline for submission. WIG 4 will be evaluated using the following rubric: Below Expectations (Unsatisfactory) Meets Expectations (Satisfactory) Any of the following: • Introduction is incomplete or disorganized and requires extensive revision and edits in order to make it acceptable • Numerous APA style errors • Article introduction not submitted • Fewer than 3 pages of text submitted • Article topic is one that may not be focused on the interests of professional counselors or counselor educators • • • • • Overall the introduction appears very well written APA Style is excellent, with virtually no errors. Ideas are presented logically Writing style is clear and concise Article topic is one that would be of interest to professional counselors or counselor educators COUN 8802 • Randall Astramovich, Ph.D. • Department of Counseling, Idaho State University Page 8 of 9 Prospectus Initial Guide Expectations and Rubric Objectives: 1. Conceptualize and present on a potential topic for your dissertation prospectus. 2. Develop skills to present elements expected of a prospectus and a dissertation defense meeting. Procedure: 1. Create a 45 minute professional PowerPoint presentation that includes the following: a. Introduction and Significance of Topic b. Brief Literature Review/Synthesis of Major Ideas/Theories and Models Influencing the Topic c. Identification of Potential Research Questions/Hypotheses and Rationale for the Study d. Identification of a Potential Research Methodology for the study e. Identification of steps during the research process including: IRB approval, participant identification and selection, sample sizes, data collection plans, data analysis strategies etc. f. Discussion of potential findings of the study, including potential limitations and recommendations. PIGs will be evaluated using the following rubric: Below Expectations (unsatisfactory) Meets Expectations (Satisfactory) Any of the following: • Presentation is incomplete or disorganized • Presentation fails to address 1 or more criteria listed in a-f. • Presenter was unprepared or unable to articulate ideas and answer questions posed. • • • • Overall the presentation is well organized with a logical flow of ideas Presentation included all elements listed in a-f. Presenter was prepared and articulated the content well, including responses to questions posed. Presenter managed time well. COUN 8802 • Randall Astramovich, Ph.D. • Department of Counseling, Idaho State University Page 9 of 9 Sophisticated Academic Writing Directions: When composing academic papers, maintaining a powerful intellectual voice can lead to success. In other words, it pays to sound like you know what you are talking about. Power Verbs for Writing Analyses alludes deduces establishes permeates analogizes depicts explores pervades argues describes expresses portrays asserts delineates foreshadows presents augments defines fosters proves bolsters demonstrates illuminates qualifies clarifies depicts illustrates reveals compares develops implements solidifies conveys elucidates initiates specifies connotes embodies introduces tackles contrasts emphasizes juxtaposes transcends creates enhances paints transforms Avoiding Weak Words and Expressions You may not be able to eliminate them all, but if you can use more formal words and expressions in their place, your paper will sound much better. Weak Verbs am, is, are, be, was, were, has been, had been, have been, being, has, had, gets, shows, have, makes, seems, appears, uses, and utilizes (which means the same thing as uses). Other Weak Words lots, a lot, well, fine, so, fun, great, very, said, get, got, very, nice, your, you, good, just, like; Other examples of WEAK phrases: • forms of the verb, “to be” unless as helping verbs or when using passive verbs effectively • “This means…” • “feel” (as a substitute for “think” or “believe”) • “kind of,” “sort of’ • “makes” “This makes Barreto mad.” • “for some reason” • “personally” In most formal academic writing situations, you avoid personalizing your paper. • “I think…” “I feel…” “I believe…” (Simply state your opinion as fact and support it.) • “it seems to me” • “you” Don’t talk to me. • “get” “Barreto gets mad.” Try to avoid these too! Very Seems Anything Great Perhaps Everything Nice We Nothing Sweet Even Something Maybe Thing Fabulous This shows Little Weird That shows To some extent Really Somewhat Extremely • a lot or allot (meaning a lot, not in the act of allotting) • “it is interesting that…” • “it is interesting to note…” • “this is profound because…” • “pretty” pretty good, pretty well: “Barreto is pretty awesome.” • “…there for me” (usually in reference to mothers/friends) • “and then” “but then” (double-eliminate conjunction) • “just, even,” and “ever again” (“he was just sure…” “he is not even…” “no one could ever again…” • “In conclusion…” • “In Bierce’s short story…” • “being” (“being that…” “being as…” “his being a giant is…”) • “really” (as opposed to fakely?), really tough • “I got finished.” vs. “I finished.”(“got” is not a helping verb.) • “done” for “finished” (“I got done” is doubly awful.) • Redundancies (2 or more sentences with the same ideas unless for rhetorical effect) • This is…he/she is…that is…there is…there are…it is…it was…Simply begin with the noun that follows or better yet, create an appositive: Barreto, the handsome man standing over there, is amazing. Instead of: Barreto is amazing. He is the handsome man standing over there.
This paper must be 4 pages and have only 7 references and one of them has to be a book reference on the reference list. Ignore the page that says Prospectus Initial Guide Expectations and Rubric pleas
Malta Medical Journal, 3 4 ( 2 ): Pages (202 2 ) http://mmsjournals.org/index.php/mmj The Editorial Board retains the copyright of all material published in the Malta Medical Journal. Any reprint in any form of any part will require permission from the Editorial Board. Material submitted to the Editorial Board will not be returned, unless specifica lly requested. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Cyberbullying and mental health of adolescents Faye Grech , Mary Anne Lauri B A C K G R O U N D For most adolescents cyberbullying can be very devastating , resulting in both physical and psychological symptoms. Young people who are victims of cyberbullying experience mild to severe mental health issues. M E T H O D S This study investigates the incid ence and effects of cyberbullying among a sample of 367 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 16. The data was collected through a questionnaire which was adapted from the EU Kids Online European study. Motivations for cyberbullying include revenge, jealousy, power and a minority do it for fun. R E S U L T S One – thi rd of cyber victims experience anger, sadness, fear and humiliation. They also feel unsafe, helpless and excluded. Results also show that 18% of those who were cyberbullied resorted to self – harm while 30% experienced suicidal ideation. C O N C L U S I O N Cyberbul lying needs to be given more importance in the training of health professionals since it has a negative effect on wellbeing and mental health. Faye Grech * B. Psy(Melit .),M.P sy.(Melit.) Practicing Psychologist [email protected] Mary Anne Lauri B.A. (Hons)(Melit.), M.Sc.(Lond.),Ph.D.(Lond.),C.Psychol. Department of Psychology University of Malta Msida, Malta *Corresponding authorMMJ Malta Medical Journal Volume 34 Issue 2 2022 19 I N T R O D U C T I O N Technological advances have made informational access and exchange easier and more rapid. 1 Digital Media have changed the way we live and the way we communicate. A s with most things, there is the negative side of using technology . Using social media to harass others can cause physical and psychologica l distress and affects wellbeing of cybervictims. Cyberbullying, cyber harassment, electronic bullying and cyberaggression all refer to a phenomenon which has been receiving increasing attention in the press, in academia and in schools . 2 The emotional and psychological harm that can culminate from cyberbullying is significant, leaving adolescents scared and distressed . 3 – 4 Cyberbullies and cyber victims often experience negative outcomes such as school avoidance and failure, depression, an d low self – esteem. 4 – 5 Research on the topic shows that even cyberstanders are negatively impacted. 6 O nline risks for adolescents can take the form of content risks ( adolescent as recipient), contact risk ( adolescent as participant) or conduct risk ( adolesc ent as actor) . 7 – 8 This study focuses on conduct risk, particularly the risk of initiating the cyberbullying and contact risks particularly the risk of being cyberbullied . A D O L E S C E N T A S A C T O R O R C Y B E R B U LLY Cyberbullying is defined as an intentional and rep eated aggressive act in an electronic context (e.g., email, blogs, chatrooms, social media, text messages, instant messages, online games, or websites) against a person who cannot easily defend oneself. 4 – 5,9 It is deliberate and repeated. 9 C yberbullying a cts are done purposefully to hurt, in contrast to accidents or harmless teasing . 10 It can take the form of sending offending text or images, mocking, spreading false rumours and being excluded from a chat group. In the online context, bullying messages tra vel faster, and the audience is much larger . 11 – 12 M otivations for electronic aggression include revenge, jealousy, fun or entertainment . 13 Low self – control or impulsivity is found to be a characteristic of cyberaggressors. 14 – 15 A high score on impulsivity, or a low score on self – control, is associated with bullying others. 16 – 17 The cyberbully’s anonymity gives the bully a sense of power and control. 3 Different to face – to – face bullying, the cyberbully does not have to witness th e effects of the bullying on the victim, thus blurring the empathic interchange. 11 The online disinhibition effect makes bullies do and say hurtful things more than they would face – to – face. 18 There is a link between being a cyberbully and a being a cyberv ictim. Some c yberbullies admit that they themselves were bullied at a particular time . 14 C Y B E R V I C T I M S T argets of cyberbullying have several characteristics in common. They are more likely to be seeking acceptance and to be noticed online, they are often n ot savvy users and may not have been made aware of internet safety . Often, they did not get opportunities to develop resilience when dealing with adverse situations and have less access to caregiver support. Lastly they are less likely to report an unsafe cyber situation to an adult . 19 S tudies report that approximately half of adolescents experience cyberbullying while more than half report witnessing frequent online bullying with most students f a iling to report it . 20 L ong – term consequences of cyberbullyin g include hyperactivity, conduct issues, low pro – social behaviours, smoking, intoxication, and psychosomatic symptoms such as headaches . 21 Malta Medical Journal Volume 34 Issue 2 2022 20 Lodge, found that those who have experienced consistent cyberbullying are more likely to engage in criminal behaviour later on in life. 22 A dolescents who are cyber victims are more likely to have suicidal thoughts . 23 – 26 W H A T C A N V I C T I M S D O ? Cybervictims and cyberstanders can take action against cyberbullying, including printing complete emails, taking screenshots and making a report. The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) 27 suggests eight steps to be taken by victims and their parents. First, the cyberbully should be asked to stop the harassment and delete any belligerent messages. This step shoul d be done carefuly but firmly to ensure that it does not transpire into retaliation . This is a crucial step since it defuses the cycle of attack and retaliation. Following this the vitim should be asked to ignore or block any communications, to ensure that the bullying is not continued or perpetrated. The third step should be of making a hard copy of the abusive material and showing it to the cyberbully’s caregivers to gain their support in halting this behaviour. In this way, parents can become collaborato rs who work together to help adolescents to deal with this negative situation. Adolescents should then clean up contact lists and reduce other’s access to the victim’s accounts. Should the situation persist or escalate , the issue should be reported to the website, internet service provider or company. Parents and adolescents should also ask for support from the school psychologist, counsellor or administrative staff. Finally, if less radical steps are unsuccessful, one should report to the Cyber Crime Unit . Programs such as Brave and BeSmartOnline! give children and adolescents information on how to deal with the cyberbullying . In Malta this programme includes talks delivered to educators and students in schools. BeSmartOnline! is working to raise awareness, educate and empower students, parent s , and educators on how to use the internet safely. They also strive to promote the website www.childwebalert.gov.mt , which pr ovides a site for reporting illegal and abusive online content . T H E M A L T E S E C O N T E X T Cyberbullying is reported to be one of the most common issues faced by students who seek support from a Maltese online support service. The reports received by BeSmartOnline! Hotline and Helpline are on the increase as shown in Figure 1 . In 2017, the natio nal support line 179 operated by FSWS – Aġenzija Appoġġ received a total of 104 reports related to cyberbullying . 28 According to a Maltese study by the Lauri and Farrugia, among participants aged between 9 and 16 years, 36.6% of students have been bothered online and 12.7% have seen hateful messages being directed at others. One fourth of the participants in this study preferred not talk to anyone about it . 29 From those students who sought help about this problem, many (42%) refer to a parent for help . Talk ing to peer s (39%) is the second most common way of seeking help. Only a few (9%) talk to a teacher or educator about it. Statistics gathered by the Cyber Crime Unit, a specialized section within the Malta Police Force, indicate d a general increase in case s involving the Unit . Figure 1 shows the increase in the reports received by the cybercrime unit between 2012 and 2016. According to the Cyber Crime unit consequences of cyberbullying primarily include fear, which stems from ( i ) the fact that the audience is unknown, and ( ii ) the internet’s digital permanence which makes it possible for the victim to read and reread the content. The Cyber C rime Unit expressed the need Malta Medical Journal Volume 34 Issue 2 2022 21 for more community outreach and a wareness about cybercrime and especially cyberbullying. Many children and parents refer to schools for information about i nternet – related safety . 29 When bullying is affecting a young person’s mental health especially when the person suffers from additional health problems, doctors can work with school psycholog ists and educators to provide the necessary support. Figure 1: Graph representing the number of reports received by BeSmartOnline Hotline and Helpline between 2012 – 2016 M A T E R I A L S A N D M E T H O D S The aim of this study was to find out the incidence of cyberbullying as well as its effects. Based on the literature the following the research questions were formulated: • What is the incidence of cyberbullying amongst Maltese adolescents aged between 13 a nd 16 who took part in this study? • What possible effects does cyberbullying have on the victims? P A R T I C I P A N T S For this study, classes of students aged between 13 and 16 from five schools were recruited. These were two State schools, two Church schools a nd one was an Independent school. Table 1 gives the population of students in State, Church and Independent schools and the corresponding sample numbers. Although the schools were not randomly chosen, they were selected to reflect different types of school s. Approval was obtained from the Faculty Research Ethics Committee. School administrators acted as gatekeepers and made initial contacts. They were responsible for the management of parental consent forms to maintain anonymity. Malta Medical Journal Volume 34 Issue 2 2022 22 Table 1 Student Population and student samples – state, church and independent schools Q U E S T I O N N A I R E The questionnaire used was based on a section of the EUKids Online questionnaire which was used in 27 countries in Europe in 2018. It was administered to a sample of 367 adolescents, during a Persona l Social and Career Development lesson. The data collected was analysed quantitatively using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). R E S U L T S Out of the 367 participating students, 80% ( n = 293 ) of the participants identified as Maltese and 20% id entified as ‘other’. With regards to gender, 52% were female, 46% were male, and 2% indicated ‘other’ or did not answer. One in four participating, 24.5% ( n =90) reported having experienced cyberbullying . In this study, of the 90 participants who experienced cyberbullying, 67, that is 74.4% also experienced face – to – face bullying . The relationship between those experiencing cyberbullying and being hurt also face – to – face was significant (χ2=3.869, df=1, p <0.05). Table 2 gives the forms of cyberb ullying, the percentages of participants who were victims of cyberbullying and the percentages who carried out bullying online. R espondents described how they felt when they experienced cyberbullying. Figure 2 shows that anger was the most common feeling . Anger may cloud one’s vision and impulsive responses may ensue leading to retaliation . Retaliation would mean that the victim becomes the bully . The adolescents may experience sadness and humiliation. They also feel humiliated because the bullying is bein g viewed by many other people especially when screenshots of chats are taken and forwarded to others. Victims also reported being afraid. Feeling unsafe has effects on wellbeing. The results show a significant difference in the mean life satisfaction score between those who were bullied and those who were not (t= – 2.366, df=353, p <0.02), with those who experienced cyberbullying indicating a lower score for life satisfaction and wellbeing. Other studies also report this finding . 30 – 31 Student Population between 14 – 16 (ISCED 3 Level) Sample State Schools 4,414 153 Church Schools 2,940 137 Independent schools 875 77 Total 8,229 367 Malta Medical Journal Volume 34 Issue 2 2022 23 Table 2 Experiences of cyberbullying and cybervictimization Experience Valid percentage of participants who selected: I did it Done to me Seen it happening Never Sending nasty/hurtful messages 23.2 28.3 40.3 27.7 Passing around/posting nasty/hurtful messages where everyone could see 7 10.9 37.4 49.2 Leaving out/excluding someone from a group/activity online 24.9 26.6 31.6 29.1 Rumouring online 9.8 11.2 42.6 37.8 Using nicknames on the internet in a disturbing way 14.9 10.1 35.5 46.5 Using offensive symbols online 24.1 10.2 39.7 36.5 Mocking on the internet 18.8 12.8 38.2 40.2 Making fun of shared information on the internet 28.5 8.2 37.9 32.8 Writing offensive comments on websites 8.1 3.7 34.8 54.5 Using humiliating expressions on the internet 10.2 6.8 32.7 52.8 Using someone’s identity without their permission online 6.8 6.5 26.5 61.1 Hiding identity on the internet 19.5 4.2 22.9 56.7 Entering someone’s private page without permission 9.8 7.0 18.2 67.5 Hacking someone’s private page without permission 2.5 4.7 15.9 74.6 Sharing/threatening to share videos online without permission 5.9 7.3 29.9 58.0 Sharing photos online without permission 15.9 14.2 29.9 47.5 Using personal information in a way which the person does not like 7.1 11.3 30.0 54.4 Editing photos in an offensive manner on the internet 10.4 8.1 34.2 47.6 Using abusive/insulting language in e – mails 2.8 4.5 18.4 73.1 Using the internet as a slandering tool (making false and damaging statements) 1.7 6.5 28.1 62.2 Using passwords to access someone’s information or pretend to be someone 7.6 5.9 22.4 63.6 Finding out where someone is by tracking their phone/device 13.4 3.7 16.0 66.9 Malta Medical Journal Volume 34 Issue 2 2022 24 Figure 2 Cybervictims’ feelings in relation to cyberbullying experiences by frequency E F F E C T S O F C Y B E R B U L L Y I N G V ictims of cyberbullying reported feeling distressed, experienced suicidal thoughts, self harmed, and some said that they did not want to go to school (see F igures 3a – e). Some students reported that their academic performance suffered. These results are in line with other stud ies. 32 Approximately 1 in 3 participants ( n = 131 ) admitted to hav ing instigated cyberbullying . Often, belligerent messages were sent via messaging, through for example, Facebook , Whatsapp and other social networking sites. Cyberbullies reported that the m otivations for bullying include retaliation or revenge, jealousy and sometimes teasing. Figure 4 shows the motivations behind cyberbullying as described by the participants of this study. In line with cyberbullying research with adolescents 13 results of this study suggest a high correlation between victimization and per petration. Those who instigated cyberbullying are more likely to have been victims (59% cyberbully – victims, 41% cyberbully only) (χ2=4.350, df=1, p <0.05). The fast – paced online world blurs the line between bully and victim in that it does not allow time fo r the victim to consider their response. Often t he exchange of bully and victim roles occurs frequently and spontaneously. Figure 5 describes the dynamics between the instigator, the victim and the bystander. There are instances when the cyberbully and the cybervictim change roles rapidly. The cyberworld is carried in our pockets, with immediate and quick access, and posting without much consideration is an e asy feat. I nstigation and retaliation are easy behaviours in the online world. Malta Medical Journal Volume 34 Issue 2 2022 25 Figure 3 Effects of cyberbullying Figure 4 Motivations for cyberbullying Malta Medical Journal Volume 34 Issue 2 2022 26 Figure 5 Dynamics between instigator, victim and cyber stander D I S C U S S I O N Not all young people react the same when they receive hurtful messages. Some participants suffer in silence, others take it in their stride to do something about it while others still perceive it to be acceptable to retaliate . I n this scenario the victim may become the bully and the bully becomes victim as explained in Figure 6. In the context of the fast – paced, rapid and ever – changing electronic envionment, this change of roles occurs all too quickly . I mpulsivity and lack of self – cont rol are the cogwheels which power the cycle. In light of the results in this study as well as others carried out on a larger sample, 29 Maltese adolescents are experiencing , perpetrating or witnessing cyberbullying regularly. This is a significant problem which needs a holistic approach in order to be addressed adequately . A national policy targeting cyberbullying is needed since addressing traditional bullying differs from that of c yberbullying . This phenomenon needs to be given more importance through a transdisciplinary approach. Research support s the ‘Stop, Block and Tell’ strategy, where children are urged to take four steps for managing the situation: (1) stop and calm down to avoid adverse reactions, (2) block the cyberbully, (3) limit communication to a friend list and (4) report to a trusted adult . 33 Malta Medical Journal Volume 34 Issue 2 2022 27 Figure 6 Cycle of cyberbullying: attack and retaliation C O N C L U S I O N For professionals in training work ing with children and young peop le , awareness of incidences of cyberbullying and its consequences are important. E ducation about the cycle of attack and retaliation is essential to understand conflict as a maintaining factor of online cycles of cyberbullying. The feeling of disinhibition and invisibility in the online context should be targeted through teaching ‘cyberethics’, ‘cybercitizenship’ and ‘netiquette’ . The ‘steeling effect’ suggested by Rutter is a result of t eaching self – control, reflection, and self – regulation to overcome the effect of impulsivity on the continuation of the cycle. It is possible that a dverse and challenging experiences are transform ed into opportunities of learning and growth preparing them to become healthy and productive members of society . 34 S U M M A R Y B OX Cyberbullying gives rise to symptoms such as hyperactivity, conduct issues, anger, sadness, fear and shame. European data shows that cyberbullying is on the increase. * Maltese data shows that 1 in 4 of adolescents who are experiencing cyberbullying may se lf – harm and 1 in 3 may have suicidal ideation. A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S The authors would like to thank Ms Michela Pulis for her support in publishing this paper. Malta Medical Journal Volume 34 Issue 2 2022 28 R E F E R E N C E S 1. Tara fdar M, Gupta A, Turel O. The dark side of information technology use. Info Systems J. 2013 May;23(3):269 – 275. 2. Kowalski RM, Limber SP, Agatston PW. Cyberbullying: bullying in the digital age. Oxford: Wiley – Blackwell. 2012; 3. Cannard L. Cyberbullying: A TAF E Perspective. Youth Studies Australia. 2009 Jun;28(2):41 – 49. 4. Feinberg T, Robey N. Cyberbullying: Intervention and prevention strategies. National Association of School …. 2009; 5. Moreno MA. Cyberbullying. JAMA Pediatr. 2014 May;168(5):500. 6. Bastiaensens S , Vandebosch H, Poels K, Van Cleemput K, DeSmet A, De Bourdeaudhuij I. Cyberbullying on social network sites. An experimental study into bystanders’ behavioural intentions to help the victim or reinforce the bully. Comput Human Behav. 2014 Feb;31(31):259 – 2 71. 7. Livingstone S, Mascheroni G, Ólafsson K, Haddon L. ) Children’sonline risks and opportunities: comparative findings from EU Kids Online andNet Children Go Mobile. London: London School of Economics and Polical Science. 2014; 8. 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