In this assignment, you will prepare a two to three (2 to 3) page document that addresses the requirements specified in the case. Also include at least two (2) references to current, scholarly and/or

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In this assignment, you will prepare a two to three (2 to 3) page document that addresses the requirements specified in the case. Also include at least two (2) references to current, scholarly and/or authoritative sources.

Specifically in your document you will need to:

  1. Prepare a flowchart, logic diagram, or narrative demonstrating your understanding of the revenue process.
  2. Identify follow-up questions for the client.
  3. Match controls to assertions in the revenue cycle.
  4. Draw an overall conclusion about internal controls related to the revenue cycle.
  5. Use at least two (2) current, quality academic or authoritative sources in this assignment.

In this assignment, you will prepare a two to three (2 to 3) page document that addresses the requirements specified in the case. Also include at least two (2) references to current, scholarly and/or
Assignment two During an interview Josh and Sharon held with David Collier, CFO of Cloud 9, they learned a lot about the tone at the top at Cloud 9. Top-level management and the board of directors adopted a code of conduct that emphasizes the importance of management and other employees acting with integrity. Cloud 9’s board members and senior managers attend training and awareness sessions on the code at least annually. In addition, there has been a rigorous process of embedding the code’s main points throughout the company’s policies and procedures, most of which have been rewritten in the previous two years. Josh intentionally conducts interviews with employees at all levels within Cloud 9. He finds that all employees have attended training on the code of conduct. Several accounting personnel add that while the company has financial goals to achieve, the emphasis from the top has been getting the financial numbers right. Accurate financial reporting is a top priority. A copy of the company’s code of conduct and the policies and procedures are included in the audit working papers. Josh also writes a description of the company’s efforts to communicate its approach to management integrity in the report. He assesses the control environment at Cloud 9 as likely to be effective. Susan Larson, a senior manager, was having lunch with Linh Sun (an audit senior) and Peter Miller (a new audit staff). All three were working on an audit of a pharmaceutical client. Both Linh and Peter were focused on understanding the client’s system of internal control for a new audit client. Susan commented, “I want you to get a good feel for the control environment and the tone at the top about financial reporting by talking to employees at all levels of the organization, particularly in accounting. Wells Fargo has been in the news recently because the tone at the top focused on hitting targets at any cost, and there were significant negative consequences for those who did not meet artificially high expectations. At one end of the spectrum, you have companies like Wells Fargo with a poor tone at the top. At the other end of the spectrum, I had a client that I approached with a misstatement that was significant, but probably had not met our materiality threshold. After the controller understood the underlying cause of the misstatement, and how their control system failed to detect the problem, the controller announced that the company would book the adjustment, even though it decreased unaudited earnings that had previously been announced. When I asked the controller about his reasoning, he stated, ‘We are more concerned about our credibility with investors than one earnings announcement.‛ These are the two ends of the spectrum, and our new audit client may be somewhere in between these two examples. I want you to determine where on this control environment spectrum this new client is.” In their interview, Josh and Sharon ask David Collier about Cloud 9’s risk assessment process. They want to know which risks management has identified so that they can consider whether those risks could cause a material misstatement in the accounts. They also want to know about the company’s methods of responding to the identified risks. David Collier tells them that Cloud 9’s management continually monitors its competitors’ activities. It also considers the risk of interruption to supplies because of shipping problems and labor disputes at production plants or transport companies. Other examples of risks that could have a major impact on the accounts are the use of forward exchange contracts to control the risks caused by purchasing in foreign currencies. Cloud 9 management is also very aware of risks associated with the just-in-time inventory system, which has had some problems lately, and has planned some changes to deal with those problems. Management is monitoring the risks of using a soccer player as a spokesperson for the brand, plus the broader risks arising from sponsorship of the soccer team, because there has been a lot of adverse publicity about soccer players’ behavior over the past year. Such adverse publicity could impact negatively on sales. Cloud 9’s management ensures that the soccer team’s management keeps the company’s management informed of players’ activities, where appropriate. Management has also assessed fraud risks, and it believes that between the company’s code of conduct, tone at the top about its code of conduct, and strong system of internal controls, the incentives for fraud and the opportunity to commit fraud are minimal. Josh concludes from the interview and from Suzie’s review of documents including company plans, board minutes, and significant contracts and agreements that Cloud 9 has a potentially effective system of risk assessment because it actively searches out and considers potential risks to the business, and it has developed action plans to deal with each risk depending on its likely occurrence. Josh has significant experience in understanding information systems and, based on the interview with David Collier, which covered the information systems at a high level, Josh can conclude that the entity-level controls in this area are likely to be effective. Josh will gather further information in an interview with Cloud 9’s financial controller, Carla Johnson. Based on this second interview and a review of the company’s documents, he and Suzie will write a description of their understanding of the processes used in each of the major transaction cycles. In the interview with David Collier, Sharon and Josh ask questions about both the control activities and the monitoring of those activities at Cloud 9. Sharon and Josh are particularly interested in the systems used at the company to make sure that information about management’s plans is transmitted throughout the organization and that there are policies and procedures to ensure that the appropriate actions are taken and reviewed. In addition to asking David Collier about these matters, Suzie reads the policy and procedures manuals. Josh and Suzie then take a tour of the offices and other facilities. For example, Cloud 9 has a tightly structured system of performance reviews. Managers at each level must report financial and operating performance against budgets at regular intervals. Higher-level managers are able to access information about activities within their area of responsibility for monitoring purposes through the information system. Although there have been some issues with theft of goods from the retail store, the losses have been contained following the installation of additional security, including cameras. Josh and Sharon have been particularly impressed with Cloud 9’s thorough approach to appropriate segregation of duties. Josh is able to conclude that, at an entity level, there is sufficient evidence that these controls are potentially effective. He asks Suzie to review the specific controls that affect transaction processes in more detail and document their understanding of these processes. Josh finds that he is spending a great deal of time with Will Burton, Cloud 9’s IT manager. Josh and Suzie have a number of questions for Will about what software programs are designed within the accounting system to process transactions; whether there have been any changes to those programs during the year; how changes are authorized, reviewed, and tested; who has access to programs and data files; and how access to programs and data is protected. Will walks the audit team through Cloud 9’s principal data center, showing them various physical controls, and printouts and reports that Will receives regarding changes to system access and changes to various programs. Suzie inspects documentation regarding program changes, their authorization, and testing. The team is focused on adequacy of segregation of duties; controls over program changes, maintenance and updates; access controls, and plans for hardware and software upgrades. At this point, Suzie and Josh are just trying to obtain an understanding of IT general controls at Cloud 9. They know that testing will come later. When they are finished, Josh is satisfied that Cloud 9 has addressed the control issues that he is most concerned about. Overall the system design appears to be operating as planned, based on their questions, observation of Cloud 9 personnel, and preliminary inspection of reports from Cloud 9’s IT system. If tests of controls show that IT general controls are effective, this will make testing applications more efficient, and increase the probability that the audit team can use a reliance on controls approach during the audit. Strong IT general controls are also critical to giving Cloud 9 an unqualified opinion on internal controls over financial reporting. Suzie will document their understanding of the various transaction processes. By performing a system walkthrough in each major accounting system, Suzie will document the flow of transactions and the documents that the client uses in the accounting system. Josh is particularly focused on transaction and account balance assertions, what can go wrong for each assertion, and the controls that the client has implemented to identify and correct potential misstatements. Suzie asks questions about what exception reports are generated by the system, and how items appearing on exception reports are cleared. She learns that some exceptions are noted only on computer terminals, and corrections must be made before transactions are processed further. Once the types of potential material misstatements and the controls that Cloud 9 has put in place to detect and correct any misstatements are understood, the audit team will consider the magnitude and likelihood of the misstatement in the financial statements. This will help narrow the risk assessment and determine what audit procedures should be performed. In addition, the audit team considers how errors in each financial statement assertion might occur. This analysis will guide the audit planning for additional substantive testing. Sharon and the audit partner can also decide if there are any material weaknesses that should be included in the management letter. Suzie knows that documenting her understanding of the processes is necessary for the team to identify control strengths that can be relied upon to justify reduced substantive testing. Substantive testing will be reduced if tests of those controls confirm that these design strengths are reflected in actual performance of the control system. Josh thinks he will need to discuss his assessment of control strengths and weaknesses with Sharon before finalizing the audit program. He needs her help to determine if some control weaknesses are compensated for by other strengths. They will also identify the most important controls to test. Some controls may actually be redundant; that is, another control exists that performs the same function. Suzie will prepare a flowchart or narrative to document her understanding of the different transaction processes. This will help her understand the stages at which errors can occur. She will include the entire process from the initiation of the transaction through to recording in the general ledger. Where appropriate, she will link several accounting processes together into one seamless flow of transactions. For example, as a first step she makes a simple diagram of the flow of transactions from initiation of a purchase order through to the cash payment to the supplier. The process comprises three smaller processes: initiating a purchase order through to receiving the goods as they arrive; receiving the purchase invoice from the supplier through to entering the invoice in the general ledger; and requesting cash payment through to recording the payment to the supplier. In the next step, the flow of transaction diagram will be supplemented with additional details of the IT tests and their disposition. Once Suzie has documented the audit team’s understanding of Cloud 9’s system of internal controls and her preliminary assessment of the system’s strengths and weaknesses, Josh presents the document to Jo Wadley, the engagement partner of the audit. The audit team will gather additional evidence about the system of internal controls during the audit, and at the completion of the audit the senior members of the audit team will make a final assessment of Cloud 9’s internal controls and write a management letter. Providing a management letter, including recommendations for future changes to the system of internal controls, is an important part of the auditor’s role. The management letter not only discharges the audit team’s responsibilities to the client, but helps the client improve its systems. In turn, this will likely increase the quality of its financial reporting in the future and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of future financial statement audits. Once Suzie has documented the audit team’s understanding of Cloud 9’s system of internal controls and her preliminary assessment of the system’s strengths and weaknesses, Josh presents the document to Jo Wadley, the engagement partner of the audit. The audit team will gather additional evidence about the system of internal controls during the audit, and at the completion of the audit the senior members of the audit team will make a final assessment of Cloud 9’s internal controls and write a management letter. Providing a management letter, including recommendations for future changes to the system of internal controls, is an important part of the auditor’s role. The management letter not only discharges the audit team’s responsibilities to the client, but helps the client improve its systems. In turn, this will likely increase the quality of its financial reporting in the future and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of future financial statement audits.
In this assignment, you will prepare a two to three (2 to 3) page document that addresses the requirements specified in the case. Also include at least two (2) references to current, scholarly and/or
Running head: BUSINESS ANALYSIS. 1 BUSINESS ANALYSIS Name Professor Bunney Schmidt Acc 562 Advanced Auditing Strayer University April 17, 2020 Business Analysis Retail and wholesale industries are called the distribution industries. These industries are involved within the procedures of products distribution between the producer and therefore the consumer. The wholesale industries distribute the products to retailers, merchants, institutions, or other sectors (Huy, 2018). They neither produce nor consume but rather act as intermediaries within the market. On the other hand, retail industries sell merchandise in smaller proportions to consumers for household or personal consumption to other businesses or institutions (Huy, 2018). Various areas impact financial reporting. These include financial crisis, Management’s discussion, and analysis reverse mergers, backdoor registrations, valuation of equity transactions, and smaller reporting company status. Cloud9 is a company of e-sports based in Los Angeles, California, formed in 2013. The company runs its activities across the states and internationally (Scholz, 2019). Financial ratios are essential in evaluating Cloud9 financial position and wellbeing. Economical rates that are used in measuring financial areas include liquidity ratio, leverage financial ratio, and profitability ratio (Liang, 2016). Liquidity ratio defines the potential effect of how Cloud9 repays its future long term and current short-term debts. It is calculated through the present ratio, which is assets divided by present liabilities. Current liabilities are current assets minus current equity which is 0.5-1.0= -0.5. Negative means prepaid expenses (Liang, 2016). Current ratio= 0.5/0.5=1. The current ratio is 1 meaning Cloud9 can meet its short-term repayments. The leverage financial ratio is calculated through the equity ratio. Equity ratio will measure how sustainable Cloud9’s business is. The equity ratio is calculated by dividing total equity by total assets. The equity ratio is 1.0/0.5=2. This means that Cloud9 Inc. has a higher solvency level and is thus able to meet its long-term obligations. The Profitability ratio measures the ability of Cloud9 to generate income (Liang, 2016). They include EBITDA margin and Return on Investment. EBITDA is determined by dividing income before tax by revenue. EBITDA is 5.0/0.5=100. This is a higher EBITDA, and it means Cloud9 generates a lot of cash per year. Return on sales is decided by the division of gross profits by total revenue. Return on sales is 2.0/0.5*100%= 40%. Cloud9 Inc. generates 40 dollars of profits out of 100-dollar sales. This is often an honest to God profit. Thus, all the above financial ratios show that Cloud9 has good financial health and thus can outlive its competitors. The major risks facing Cloud9 are untimely supply of products from suppliers, competition from major competitors, Unfavorable changes in technology, seasonal demand of products by customers and financial crises (Scholz, 2019). References Huy, D. T. N. (2018). Selecting Various Industrial Competitors Affect the Risk Level of Viet Nam Wholesale and Retail Industry During and After the Global Crisis 2007-2011. International Academic Journal of Innovative Research, 5(1), 60-68. Liang, D., Lu, C. C., Tsai, C. F., & Shih, G. A. (2016). Financial ratios and corporate governance indicators in bankruptcy prediction: A comprehensive study. European Journal of Operational Research, 252(2), 561-572. Reid, L. C., Carcello, J. V., Li, C., Neal, T. L., & Francis, J. R. (2019). Impact of auditor report changes on financial reporting quality and audit costs: Evidence from the United Kingdom. Contemporary Accounting Research, 36(3), 1501-1539. Scholz, T. M. (2019). Conclusion: The Future of eSports. In eSports is Business (pp. 135-147). Palgrave Pivot, Cham.

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